How to format your references using the Frontiers in Child and Neurodevelopmental Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Child and Neurodevelopmental Psychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Morgan, B. (2014). Research impact: income for outcome. Nature 511, S72-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Coffin, J. M., and Stoye, J. P. (2009). Virology. A new virus for old diseases? Science 326, 530–531.
A journal article with 3 authors
Patt, A. G., Ogallo, L., and Hellmuth, M. (2007). Sustainability. Learning from 10 years of climate outlook forums in Africa. Science 318, 49–50.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Freedman, D. J., Riesenhuber, M., Poggio, T., and Miller, E. K. (2001). Categorical representation of visual stimuli in the primate prefrontal cortex. Science 291, 312–316.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Edwards, D. W. (2014). Risk Management in Trading. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dumont, H. J. ed. (2009). The Nile: Origin, Environments, Limnology and Human Use. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Tarantino, U., and Resmini, G. (2011). “Valutazione dei pazienti con fratture da fragilità e/o con bassa BMD (T-score<-2,5) in presenza di uno o più fattori di rischio,” in La gestione delle fratture da fragilità ossea: Raccomandazioni per chirurghi ortopedici, ed. G. Resmini (Milano: Springer), 19–19.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Child and Neurodevelopmental Psychiatry.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Patent or No Patent, Silver Oxide Cannot Cure AIDS. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986). Defaulted Student Loans: Guaranty Agencies’ Collection Practices and Procedures. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stanfill, D. L. (2010). Teacher perception of the alignment of enhancing Missouri’s Instructional Networked Teaching Strategies (eMINTS) with the National Staff Development Council (NSDC) Standards.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2016). Review: ‘Mifune: The Last Samurai’ Celebrates a Fearless Actor. New York Times, C8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Morgan, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Coffin and Stoye, 2009; Morgan, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Coffin and Stoye, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Freedman et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Child and Neurodevelopmental Psychiatry
AbbreviationFront. Psychiatry
ISSN (online)1664-0640
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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