How to format your references using the Water Science and Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water Science and Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker, S., 2015. Infectious disease. A return to the pre-antimicrobial era? Science 347, 1064–1066.
A journal article with 2 authors
Suit, H.D., Willers, H., 2003. Comment on “Tumor response to radiotherapy regulated by endothelial cell apoptosis” (I). Science 302, 1894; author reply 1894.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lill, J.T., Marquis, R.J., Ricklefs, R.E., 2002. Host plants influence parasitism of forest caterpillars. Nature 417, 170–173.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Landi, M.T., Bauer, J., Pfeiffer, R.M., Elder, D.E., Hulley, B., Minghetti, P., Calista, D., Kanetsky, P.A., Pinkel, D., Bastian, B.C., 2006. MC1R germline variants confer risk for BRAF-mutant melanoma. Science 313, 521–522.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Johnston, D., 2011. A Brief History of Justice. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Sawant, N., 2013. Big Data Application Architecture Q & A: A Problem-Solution Approach. Apress, Berkeley, CA.
A chapter in an edited book
Kalyebara, B., Islam, S.M.N., 2014. Optimisation Model for World Airways, in: Islam, S.M.N. (Ed.), Corporate Governance, Capital Markets, and Capital Budgeting: An Integrated Approach, Contributions to Management Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 107–153.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water Science and Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2013. The Next Steps of HIV Treatment [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2010. Telecommunications: Enhanced Data Collection Could Help FCC Better Monitor Competition in the Wireless Industry (No. GAO-10-779). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Edwards, C.D., 2010. Migration: Lighting to evoke human responses (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Waldman, J., 2017. Thoreau’s Distressing Canoe Trip. New York Times A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baker, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Baker, 2015; Suit and Willers, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Suit and Willers, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Landi et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater Science and Engineering
AbbreviationWater Sci. Eng.
ISSN (print)1674-2370
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Ocean Engineering

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