How to format your references using the Water Science and Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water Science and Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sutherland, W.J., 2003. Parallel extinction risk and global distribution of languages and species. Nature 423, 276–279.
A journal article with 2 authors
Blazes, D.L., Russell, K.L., 2011. Medicine in war and peace: joining forces. Nature 477, 395–396.
A journal article with 3 authors
Frebel, A., Kirby, E.N., Simon, J.D., 2010. Linking dwarf galaxies to halo building blocks with the most metal-poor star in Sculptor. Nature 464, 72–75.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Riebesell, U., Bellerby, R.G.J., Engel, A., Fabry, V.J., Hutchins, D.A., Reusch, T.B.H., Schulz, K.G., Morel, F.M.M., 2008. Comment on “Phytoplankton calcification in a high-CO2 world.” Science 322, 1466; author reply 1466.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhang, Y., Wen, F., Xiao, M., 2013. Quantum Control of Multi-Wave Mixing. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Abrutyn, S. (Ed.), 2016. Handbook of Contemporary Sociological Theory, Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Golden, R.E., Collins, C.B., Cunningham, S.D., Newman, E.N., Card, J.J., 2013. Overview of Structural Interventions to Decrease Commercial Sex Risk, in: Collins, C.B., Cunningham, S.D., Newman, E.N., Card, J.J. (Eds.), Best Evidence Structural Interventions for HIV Prevention. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 203–284.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water Science and Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2017. 7 Psychological Phrases To Know If You’re Dating A Narcissist [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1987. Natural Gas Regulation: Pipeline Transportation Under FERC Order 436 (No. RCED-87-133BR). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garibay, O., 2017. Towards a hybrid approach to mariachi education - Bridging the gap between formal and informal transmission of musical culture (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mallozzi, V.M., 2017. For Their Wedding, the Moon Dimmed the Lights. New York Times ST13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sutherland, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Blazes and Russell, 2011; Sutherland, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Blazes and Russell, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Riebesell et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater Science and Engineering
AbbreviationWater Sci. Eng.
ISSN (print)1674-2370
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Ocean Engineering

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