How to format your references using the Water Science and Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water Science and Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Malakoff, D., 2000. NUCLEAR SECURITY: Los Alamos Under Siege After Secrets Recovered. Science 288, 2109a–10a.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shin, J.S., Abraham, S.N., 2001. Cell biology. Caveolae--not just craters in the cellular landscape. Science 293, 1447–1448.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gilman, R.T., Nuismer, S.L., Jhwueng, D.-C., 2012. Coevolution in multidimensional trait space favours escape from parasites and pathogens. Nature 483, 328–330.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Christofk, H.R., Vander Heiden, M.G., Wu, N., Asara, J.M., Cantley, L.C., 2008. Pyruvate kinase M2 is a phosphotyrosine-binding protein. Nature 452, 181–186.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bauer, E., Adams, R., Eustace, D., 2011. Beyond Redundancy. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Rhodes, J., 2015. Boolean Representations of Simplicial Complexes and Matroids, Springer Monographs in Mathematics. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Tsuchida, K., 2011. Social Structures and Conflict Resolution in Primitively Eusocial Polistes Wasps, in: Inoue-Murayama, M., Kawamura, S., Weiss, A. (Eds.), From Genes to Animal Behavior: Social Structures, Personalities, Communication by Color, Primatology Monographs. Springer Japan, Tokyo, pp. 83–112.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water Science and Engineering.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2017. Scientists Can Now Submit Proposals To Use NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1990. Biotechnology: Processing Delays Continue for Growing Backlog of Patent Applications (No. RCED-90-231). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Caraballo-Cole, T., 2012. Mindfulness-based mental health services for single mothers: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Choi, S., 2013. Vanishing Acts. New York Times BR25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Malakoff, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Malakoff, 2000; Shin and Abraham, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shin and Abraham, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Christofk et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater Science and Engineering
AbbreviationWater Sci. Eng.
ISSN (print)1674-2370
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Ocean Engineering

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