How to format your references using the Water Science and Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water Science and Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Scott, A.R., 2014. Stem cells: creating a cure-all. Nature 515, S14-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Trauger, J.T., Traub, W.A., 2007. A laboratory demonstration of the capability to image an Earth-like extrasolar planet. Nature 446, 771–773.
A journal article with 3 authors
Daviter, T., Murphy, F.V., 4th, Ramakrishnan, V., 2005. Molecular biology. A renewed focus on transfer RNA. Science 308, 1123–1124.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Reiter, S., Hülsdunk, P., Woo, T., Lauterbach, M.A., Eberle, J.S., Akay, L.A., Longo, A., Meier-Credo, J., Kretschmer, F., Langer, J.D., Kaschube, M., Laurent, G., 2018. Elucidating the control and development of skin patterning in cuttlefish. Nature 562, 361–366.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bhaskar, K., Varadan Retd., T.K., 2014. Plates. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Fonseca, R.J., Weber, G.-W., Telhada, J. (Eds.), 2016. Computational Management Science: State of the Art 2014, 1st ed. 2016. ed, Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Xieqing, W., Chaogang, X., Zaiting, L., Genquan, Z., 2006. Catalytic Processes for Light Olefin Production, in: Hsu, C.S., Robinson, P.R. (Eds.), Practical Advances in Petroleum Processing. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 149–168.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water Science and Engineering.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2016. Men More Likely To Marry When There Are Fewer Women [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2010. Postsecondary Education: Many States Collect Graduates’ Employment Information, but Clearer Guidance on Student Privacy Requirements Is Needed (No. GAO-10-927). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gurska, D.P., 2017. Peering Down the Bottomless Well: Myth in Thomas Mann’s Joseph Tetralogy (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2008. Justices Narrow Money-Laundering Law. New York Times A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Scott, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Scott, 2014; Trauger and Traub, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Trauger and Traub, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Reiter et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater Science and Engineering
AbbreviationWater Sci. Eng.
ISSN (print)1674-2370
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Ocean Engineering

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