How to format your references using the Water Science and Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water Science and Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jardine, M., 2010. Astronomy. Sunscreen for the young Earth. Science 327, 1206–1207.
A journal article with 2 authors
Erdélyi, R., Fedun, V., 2007. Are there Alfvén waves in the solar atmosphere? Science 318, 1572–1574.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grottoli, A.G., Rodrigues, L.J., Palardy, J.E., 2006. Heterotrophic plasticity and resilience in bleached corals. Nature 440, 1186–1189.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pennekamp, F., Pontarp, M., Tabi, A., Altermatt, F., Alther, R., Choffat, Y., Fronhofer, E.A., Ganesanandamoorthy, P., Garnier, A., Griffiths, J.I., Greene, S., Horgan, K., Massie, T.M., Mächler, E., Palamara, G.M., Seymour, M., Petchey, O.L., 2018. Biodiversity increases and decreases ecosystem stability. Nature 563, 109–112.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marcus, Y., 2012. Supercritical Water. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Beckert, B., Damiani, F., Boer, F.S. de, Bonsangue, M.M. (Eds.), 2013. Formal Methods for Components and Objects: 10th International Symposium, FMCO 2011, Turin, Italy, October 3-5, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Goto, K., Sasaki, Y., Hara, T., Nishio, S., 2014. A Mobile Agents Control Scheme for Multiple Sinks in Dense Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks, in: Stojmenovic, I., Cheng, Z., Guo, S. (Eds.), Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Computing, Networking, and Services: 10th International Conference, MOBIQUITOUS 2013, Tokyo, Japan, December 2-4, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 52–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water Science and Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. How A One Night Stand In The Ice Age Affects Us All Today [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2015. Space Acquisitions: GAO Assessment of DOD Responsive Launch Report (No. GAO-16-156R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McAvoy, D.L., 2012. Coming of age with Shakespeare: The convergence of American youth culture and high culture since the 1980s (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M., 2017. Alexei Ratmansky Plans New ‘Harlequinade.’ New York Times C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jardine, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Erdélyi and Fedun, 2007; Jardine, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Erdélyi and Fedun, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Pennekamp et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater Science and Engineering
AbbreviationWater Sci. Eng.
ISSN (print)1674-2370
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Ocean Engineering

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