How to format your references using the Water Science and Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Water Science and Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Piccirilli, J.A., 2008. Biochemistry. Toward understanding self-splicing. Science 320, 56–57.
A journal article with 2 authors
White, A.E., Harper, J.W., 2012. Cancer. Emerging anatomy of the BAP1 tumor suppressor system. Science 337, 1463–1464.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kane Dickson, V., Pedi, L., Long, S.B., 2014. Structure and insights into the function of a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel. Nature 516, 213–218.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Boström, K.J., de Lussanet, M.H.E., Weiss, T., Puta, C., Wagner, H., 2014. A computational model unifies apparently contradictory findings concerning phantom pain. Sci. Rep. 4, 5298.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yaacoub, E.E., Dawy, Z., 2012. Resource Allocation in Uplink OFDMA Wireless Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Adams, A.A., Brenner, M., Smith, M. (Eds.), 2013. Financial Cryptography and Data Security: FC 2013 Workshops, USEC and WAHC 2013, Okinawa, Japan, April 1, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Güven, Y., Barkana, D.E., 2011. Evaluation of an Orthopedic Surgical Robotic System Orthoroby on Bone Cadaver, in: Ao, S.-I., Amouzegar, M., Rieger, B.B. (Eds.), Intelligent Automation and Systems Engineering, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 41–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Water Science and Engineering.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2017. Study Suggests Atheists Are More Intelligent Because They Can Override Religious Instinct [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988. Space Station: NASA Efforts To Establish a Design-To-Life-Cycle Cost Process (No. NSIAD-88-147). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schulz, J.L., 2015. Factors Affecting Prey Availability and Habitat Usage of Wintering Piping Plovers (Charadrius melodus) in Coastal Louisiana (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gregory Mankiw, N., 2017. Advice for Trump: Ask an Economist. New York Times BU3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Piccirilli, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Piccirilli, 2008; White and Harper, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (White and Harper, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Boström et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleWater Science and Engineering
AbbreviationWater Sci. Eng.
ISSN (print)1674-2370
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Ocean Engineering

Other styles