How to format your references using the Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chicurel M. Putting a name on it. Nature (2002) 419:755, 757.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tsubouchi T, Roeder GS. A synaptonemal complex protein promotes homology-independent centromere coupling. Science (2005) 308:870–873.
A journal article with 3 authors
Arimbasseri AG, Kassavetis GA, Maraia RJ. Transcription. Comment on “Mechanism of eukaryotic RNA polymerase III transcription termination.” Science (2014) 345:524.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Cho J, Jeon S, Wilson SA, Liu LV, Kang EA, Braymer JJ, Lim MH, Hedman B, Hodgson KO, Valentine JS, et al. Structure and reactivity of a mononuclear non-haem iron(III)-peroxo complex. Nature (2011) 478:502–505.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Leibowitz ML, Bova A, Hammond PB. The Endowment Model of Investing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2010).
An edited book
Salinesi C, Pastor O eds. Advanced Information Systems Engineering Workshops: CAiSE 2011 International Workshops, London, UK, June 20-24, 2011. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (2011). XIII, 671 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang BX, Japkowicz N. “Boosting Support Vector Machines for Imbalanced Data Sets.,” In: An A, Matwin S, Raś ZW, Ślęzak D, editors. Foundations of Intelligent Systems: 17th International Symposium, ISMIS 2008 Toronto, Canada, May 20-23, 2008 Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (2008). p. 38–47

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. The Uphill Battle For The Philae Mission. IFLScience (2014) [Accessed October 30, 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. President’s Third Special Message for FY 1981. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (1981).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bravo J. Project Share: Implementing an aftercare program for recovering adolescents: A grant proposal. [Doctoral dissertation]. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach (2009).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B. Bill Murray’s Latest Surprise Career Turn. New York Times (2017)C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
AbbreviationFront. Cardiovasc. Med.
ISSN (online)2297-055X

Other styles