How to format your references using the Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Varmus H. The new era in cancer research. Science (2006) 312:1162–1165.
A journal article with 2 authors
King-Jones K, Thummel CS. Developmental biology. Less steroids make bigger flies. Science (2005) 310:630–631.
A journal article with 3 authors
Matsumoto K, Suzuki W, Tanaka K. Neuronal correlates of goal-based motor selection in the prefrontal cortex. Science (2003) 301:229–232.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hansen SK, Rainey PB, Haagensen JAJ, Molin S. Evolution of species interactions in a biofilm community. Nature (2007) 445:533–536.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mullaney MD. The Complete Guide to Option Strategies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2009).
An edited book
Lee KS. Integrative Understanding of Shale Gas Reservoirs. 1st ed. 2016. , ed. T. H. Kim Cham: Springer International Publishing (2016).
A chapter in an edited book
Fernández-Ceniceros J, Antoñanzas Torres J, Urraca-Valle R, Sodupe-Ortega E, Sanz-García A. “Soft Computing Metamodels for the Failure Prediction of T-stub Bolted Connections,” in International Joint Conference SOCO’14-CISIS’14-ICEUTE’14: Bilbao, Spain, June 25th-27th, 2014, Proceedings Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing., eds. J. G. de la Puerta, I. G. Ferreira, P. G. Bringas, F. Klett, A. Abraham, A. C. P. L. F. de Carvalho, Á. Herrero, B. Baruque, H. Quintián, E. Corchado (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 41–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. What Makes Our Brains Unique? IFLScience (2015) Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: FAA Needs to Ensure Better Coordination When Approving Air Traffic Control Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (2004).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hall ZB II. General Relativistic Non-Radial Oscillations in Compact Stars. (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
George N. Invisibly Black. New York Times (2017)BR14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
AbbreviationFront. Cardiovasc. Med.
ISSN (online)2297-055X

Other styles