How to format your references using the Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Madden JD. Mobile robots: motor challenges and materials solutions. Science (2007) 318:1094–1097.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brunham LR, Hayden MR. Medicine. Whole-genome sequencing: the new standard of care? Science (2012) 336:1112–1113.
A journal article with 3 authors
Munoz F, Couteron P, Hubbell SP. Comment on “Global correlations in tropical tree species richness and abundance reject neutrality.” Science (2012) 336:1639; author reply 1639.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Liu J, Deng Q, Tao D, Yang K, Zhang L, Liang Z, Zhang Y. Preparation of protein imprinted materials by hierarchical imprinting techniques and application in selective depletion of albumin from human serum. Sci Rep (2014) 4:5487.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lowman M. A Practical Guide to Analytics for Governments. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2017).
An edited book
Dirbas F, Scott-Conner C eds. Breast Surgical Techniques and Interdisciplinary Management. New York, NY: Springer (2011). XXIX, 1069 p. 420 illus., 270 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
Aurenhammer F, Walzl G. “Structure and Computation of Straight Skeletons in 3-Space.,” In: Cai L, Cheng S-W, Lam T-W, editors. Algorithms and Computation: 24th International Symposium, ISAAC 2013, Hong Kong, China, December 16-18, 2013, Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (2013). p. 44–54

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Astronomers Measure Oxygen In A Galaxy 12 Billion Light-Years Away. IFLScience (2016) [Accessed October 30, 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Communications Commission: Provision for the Use of the 220-222 MHz Band by Private Land Mobile Radio Service and Final Rule. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (1997).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mendoza-Williams J. Road to success: The experiences of academically successful graduation-bound African American males. [Doctoral dissertation]. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach (2015).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B. Fighting It Out in a Race for the Perfect Wheelchair. New York Times (2016)D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
AbbreviationFront. Cardiovasc. Med.
ISSN (online)2297-055X

Other styles