How to format your references using the Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hirth G. Earth science: Missing link in mantle dynamics. Nature (2014) 507:42–43.
A journal article with 2 authors
Johnson CM, Beard BL. Geochemistry. Biogeochemical cycling of iron isotopes. Science (2005) 309:1025–1027.
A journal article with 3 authors
Narayan V, Ramaswamy S, Menon N. Long-lived giant number fluctuations in a swarming granular nematic. Science (2007) 317:105–108.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lee H-H, Norris A, Weiss JB, Frasch M. Jelly belly protein activates the receptor tyrosine kinase Alk to specify visceral muscle pioneers. Nature (2003) 425:507–512.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bi J. Sensory Discrimination Tests and Measurements. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd (2015).
An edited book
Motta G, Rizzo F, Storer JA eds. Hyperspectral Data Compression. Boston, MA: Springer US (2006).
A chapter in an edited book
Gwathmey FW, Byrd JWT. “Hip Pathology That Can Cause Groin Pain in Athletes: Diagnosis and Management,” in Sports Hernia and Athletic Pubalgia: Diagnosis and Treatment, eds. D. R. Diduch, L. M. Brunt (Boston, MA: Springer US), 31–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Why Do People Feel ‘A Rose By Any Other Name’ Wouldn’t Fit As Well? IFLScience (2015) Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Rail Transit: Observations on FTA’s State Safety Oversight Program and Potential Change in Oversight Role. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (2009).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Duffy B. Analytical Methods and Perturbation Theory for the Elliptic Restricted Three-Body Problem of Astrodynamics. (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. Quiet Campaigns Begin For Presidency of I.O.C. New York Times (2013)D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
AbbreviationFront. Cardiovasc. Med.
ISSN (online)2297-055X

Other styles