How to format your references using the Cortex citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cortex. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Couzin, I. (2007). Collective minds. Nature, 445(7129), 715.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ionescu, A. M., & Riel, H. (2011). Tunnel field-effect transistors as energy-efficient electronic switches. Nature, 479(7373), 329–337.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, L., Dürr, K. L., & Gouaux, E. (2014). X-ray structures of AMPA receptor-cone snail toxin complexes illuminate activation mechanism. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6200), 1021–1026.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Tegze, M., Faigel, G., Marchesini, S., Belakhovsky, M., & Ulrich, O. (2000). Imaging light atoms by X-ray holography. Nature, 407(6800), 38.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mang, T., Bobzin, K., & Bartels, T. (2010). Industrial Tribology. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Kahraman, C., & Yavuz, M. (Eds.). (2010). Production Engineering and Management under Fuzziness (Vol. 252). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Stoica, T., Sutter, E., & Calarco, R. (2010). GaN and InN Nanowires: Growth and Optoelectronic Properties. In V. Bârsan & A. Aldea (Eds.), Trends in Nanophysics: Theory, Experiment and Technology (pp. 73–96). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cortex.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, September 11). New Species Suggests Mammals Appeared Much Earlier Than Previously Believed. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Student Loans: Characteristics of Students and Default Rates at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (No. HEHS-98-90). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lorentz, J. (2009). The effect of requirements prioritization on avionics system conceptual design (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Neuman, W. (2015, April 15). Killing of 10 Soldiers Deals a Setback to Colombian Peace Talks. New York Times, p. A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Couzin, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Couzin, 2007; Ionescu & Riel, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ionescu & Riel, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Chen, Dürr, & Gouaux, 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Tegze, Faigel, Marchesini, Belakhovsky, & Ulrich, 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleCortex
ISSN (print)0010-9452
ScopeCognitive Neuroscience
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology

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