How to format your references using the BMC Psychology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Psychology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Mindell JA. Structural biology. The Tao of chloride transporter structure. Science. 2010;330:601–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Gillon J, Yakir D. Influence of carbonic anhydrase activity in terrestrial vegetation on the 18O content of atmospheric CO2. Science. 2001;291:2584–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Miyagoshi T, Kageyama A, Sato T. Zonal flow formation in the Earth’s core. Nature. 2010;463:793–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Carpenter SR, Cole JJ, Pace ML, Batt R, Brock WA, Cline T, et al. Early warnings of regime shifts: a whole-ecosystem experiment. Science. 2011;332:1079–82.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Hurst K. Primary Care Trust Workforce Planning and Development. Philadelphia, PA, USA: Whurr Publishers Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
1. Antona M, Stephanidis C, editors. Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Access to the Human Environment and Culture: 9th International Conference, UAHCI 2015, Held as Part of HCI International 2015, Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 2-7, 2015, Proceedings, Part IV. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Sollazzo R, Sanges M. The Second Brain and Possible Interactions with the Heart. In: Roncella A, Pristipino C, editors. Psychotherapy for Ischemic Heart Disease: An Evidence-based Clinical Approach. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 59–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Psychology.

Blog post
1. Davis J. What’s Happening To Dolphins Around The Site Of The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill? IFLScience. 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/birth-rates-dolphins-exposed-deepwater-horizon-oil-spill-still-massively-reduced/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Review of the District of Columbia’s Automatic Data Processing Operations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Obeng-Dompreh S. The impact of servicemembers’ learning styles and computer anxiety levels on computer -mediated learning. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly AL. It’s No Fun, but It May Save Your Life. New York Times. 1999;:G9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Psychology
AbbreviationBMC Psychol.
ISSN (online)2050-7283
Scope

Other styles