How to format your references using the Steroids citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Steroids. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.B. Nasrallah, Recognition and rejection of self in plant reproduction, Science. 296 (2002) 305–308.
A journal article with 2 authors
X. Wang, B. Huang, Computational study of in-plane phonon transport in Si thin films, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6399.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.K. Thompson, M.R. Peterson, R.D. Freeman, Single-neuron activity and tissue oxygenation in the cerebral cortex, Science. 299 (2003) 1070–1072.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A.E. Bates, B. Helmuth, M.T. Burrows, M.I. Duncan, J. Garrabou, T. Guy-Haim, F. Lima, A.M. Queiros, R. Seabra, R. Marsh, J. Belmaker, N. Bensoussan, Y. Dong, A.D. Mazaris, D. Smale, M. Wahl, G. Rilov, Biologists ignore ocean weather at their peril, Nature. 560 (2018) 299–301.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T.N. Seyfried, Cancer as a Metabolic Disease, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
Z. Levin, W.R. Cotton, eds., Aerosol Pollution Impact on Precipitation: A Scientific Review, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
G.H. Van Doorn, B.L. Richardson, M.A. Symmons, J.L. Howell, Cutaneous Inputs Yield Judgments of Line Length That Are Equal to, or Better Than, Those Based on Kinesthetic Inputs, in: P. Isokoski, J. Springare (Eds.), Haptics: Perception, Devices, Mobility, and Communication: International Conference, EuroHaptics 2012, Tampere, Finland, June 13-15, 2012 Proceedings, Part II, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 25–30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Steroids.

Blog post
T. Hale, Scientist Steps Closer To Understanding The Enigmatic Noises Of The Northern Lights, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Safety: Proposals to Enhance Aircraft Tracking and Flight Data Recovery May Aid Accident Investigation, but Challenges Remain, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.S. Leslie, Understanding Individual Change in Practice: A Grounded Theory Study of Maternity Care Providers, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Kelly, Man in the News; A Master of the Image: David Richmond Gergen, New York Times. (1993) 122.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSteroids
ISSN (print)0039-128X
Clinical Biochemistry
Molecular Biology
Organic Chemistry

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