How to format your references using the Steroids citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Steroids. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Nielsen, BIOENGINEERING. Yeast cell factories on the horizon, Science. 349 (2015) 1050–1051.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.W. Bagnall, D.L. McLean, Modular organization of axial microcircuits in zebrafish, Science. 343 (2014) 197–200.
A journal article with 3 authors
B. Berkhout, A.T. Das, N. Beerens, HIV-1 RNA editing, hypermutation, and error-prone reverse transcription, Science. 292 (2001) 7.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
O.T. Summerscales, F.G.N. Cloke, P.B. Hitchcock, J.C. Green, N. Hazari, Reductive cyclotrimerization of carbon monoxide to the deltate dianion by an organometallic uranium complex, Science. 311 (2006) 829–831.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T. Duhon, How the Trading Floor Really Works, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex, UK, 2012.
An edited book
C. Wittmann, R. Krull, eds., Biosystems Engineering II: Linking Cellular Networks and Bioprocesses, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Kluvancová, A-Poset with Multiplicative Operation, in: K.T. Atanassov, O. Castillo, J. Kacprzyk, M. Krawczak, P. Melin, S. Sotirov, E. Sotirova, E. Szmidt, G. De Tré, S. Zadrożny (Eds.), Novel Developments in Uncertainty Representation and Processing: Advances in Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets and Generalized Nets – Proceedings of 14th International Conference on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets and Generalized Nets, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 51–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Steroids.

Blog post
K. Evans, Burning Less Coal Means Less Mercury In Your Sushi, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, GAO and Federal Government ADP Procurement, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.E. Crosby, A phenomenological heuristic study of psychosocial factors that contribute to African American females’ HIV seroconversion, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Kerry, What We Got Right, New York Times. (2017) A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSteroids
ISSN (print)0039-128X
Clinical Biochemistry
Molecular Biology
Organic Chemistry

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