How to format your references using the Frontiers in Cardiovascular and Smooth Muscle Pharmacology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Cardiovascular and Smooth Muscle Pharmacology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pearce, J. M. (2012). Physics: Make nanotechnology research open-source. Nature 491, 519–521.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kim, H., and Kwon, S. (2013). Materials science. Water-responsive polymer composites on the move. Science 339, 150–151.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wittkopp, P. J., Haerum, B. K., and Clark, A. G. (2004). Evolutionary changes in cis and trans gene regulation. Nature 430, 85–88.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Honkala, K., Hellman, A., Remediakis, I. N., Logadottir, A., Carlsson, A., Dahl, S., et al. (2005). Ammonia synthesis from first-principles calculations. Science 307, 555–558.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thiessen, H. (1996). Measuring the Real World. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,.
An edited book
Fox, E. A., Neuhold, E. J., Premsmit, P., and Wuwongse, V. eds. (2005). Digital Libraries: Implementing Strategies and Sharing Experiences: 8th International Conference on Asian Digital Libraries, ICADL 2005, Bangkok, Thailand, December 12-15, 2005. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Demmig-Adams, B., Ebbert, V., Zarter, C. R., and Adams, W. W., III (2006). “Characteristics and Species-Dependent Employment of Flexible Versus Sustained Thermal Dissipation and Photoinhibition,” in Photoprotection, Photoinhibition, Gene Regulation, and Environment Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration., eds. B. Demmig-Adams, W. W. Adams, and A. K. Mattoo (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 39–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Cardiovascular and Smooth Muscle Pharmacology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Climbing The Tree: The Case For Chimpanzee ‘Personhood.’ IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000). National Airspace System: Persistent Problems in FAA’s New Navigation System Highlight Need for Periodic Reevaluation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vas, L. T. (2008). Orbis pictus: Intermedialität zwischen Berliner Stadtmalerei und literarischer Stadterfahrung dargestellt anhand der Werke von E.T.A. Hoffmann und Wilhelm Raabe.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller, B., and McKINLEY, J. C., Jr (2015). Connecticut Death Penalty Law Is Unconstitutional, Top State Court Says. New York Times, A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pearce, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Pearce, 2012; Kim and Kwon, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kim and Kwon, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Honkala et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Cardiovascular and Smooth Muscle Pharmacology
AbbreviationFront. Pharmacol.
ISSN (online)1663-9812
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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