How to format your references using the Frontiers in Cardiovascular and Smooth Muscle Pharmacology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Cardiovascular and Smooth Muscle Pharmacology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Etzioni, O. (2011). Search needs a shake-up. Nature 476, 25–26.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ricciardi, A., and Ward, J. M. (2006). Comment on “Opposing effects of native and exotic herbivores on plant invasions.” Science 313, 298; author reply 298.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cymes, G. D., Ni, Y., and Grosman, C. (2005). Probing ion-channel pores one proton at a time. Nature 438, 975–980.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tukiainen, T., Villani, A.-C., Yen, A., Rivas, M. A., Marshall, J. L., Satija, R., et al. (2018). Corrigendum: Landscape of X chromosome inactivation across human tissues. Nature 555, 274.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grant, G. (2012). Ecosystem Services Come to Town. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Hadjiski, M., Kasabov, N., Filev, D., and Jotsov, V. eds. (2016). Novel Applications of Intelligent Systems. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Schurz, G. (2011). “Abductive Belief Revision in Science,” in Belief Revision meets Philosophy of Science, eds. E. J. Olsson and S. Enqvist (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 77–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Cardiovascular and Smooth Muscle Pharmacology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016). $10 Million Contest To Build A Real-Life Star Trek Tricorder Nears End. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1976). Recent Development in Science and Technology: Progress and Concerns. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dixon, L. K. (2009). Tracing anthropogenic wastes: Detection of fluorescent optical brighteners in a gradient of natural organic matter fluorescence.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017). Tough Architect of the Mets. New York Times, D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Etzioni, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Ricciardi and Ward, 2006; Etzioni, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ricciardi and Ward, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Tukiainen et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Cardiovascular and Smooth Muscle Pharmacology
AbbreviationFront. Pharmacol.
ISSN (online)1663-9812
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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