How to format your references using the Frontiers in Cardiovascular and Smooth Muscle Pharmacology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Cardiovascular and Smooth Muscle Pharmacology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Broecker, W. S. (2007). Climate change CO2 arithmetic. Science 315, 1371.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li, H.-B., and Henning, T. (2011). The alignment of molecular cloud magnetic fields with the spiral arms in M33. Nature 479, 499–501.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yoder, B. L., Bisson, R., and Beck, R. D. (2010). Steric effects in the chemisorption of vibrationally excited methane on Ni(100). Science 329, 553–556.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yu, Y., Zhang, X. H., Ebersole, B., Ribnicky, D., and Wang, Z. Q. (2013). Bitter melon extract attenuating hepatic steatosis may be mediated by FGF21 and AMPK/Sirt1 signaling in mice. Sci. Rep. 3, 3142.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Birla, R. (2014). Introduction to Tissue Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sahin, K. S., and Turner, R. S. eds. (2015). New Ground: Pushing the Boundaries of Studying Informal Learning in Science, Mathematics, and Technology. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Singh, J., Mohanty, S. P., and Pradhan, D. K. (2013). “2-Port SRAM Bitcell Design,” in Robust SRAM Designs and Analysis, eds. S. P. Mohanty and D. K. Pradhan (New York, NY: Springer), 83–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Cardiovascular and Smooth Muscle Pharmacology.

Blog post
Evans, K. (2016). This Interactive Map Shows Where People With HIV Live In The US — And It Points To Some Distressing Trends. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1976). Recent Development in Science and Technology: Progress and Concerns. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Best, W. (2009). Beneath the Silence.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2006). The Roberts Court Takes On Abortion. New York Times, WK14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Broecker, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Broecker, 2007; Li and Henning, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Li and Henning, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Yu et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Cardiovascular and Smooth Muscle Pharmacology
AbbreviationFront. Pharmacol.
ISSN (online)1663-9812
ScopePharmacology (medical)

Other styles