How to format your references using the Frontiers in Cardiovascular and Smooth Muscle Pharmacology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Cardiovascular and Smooth Muscle Pharmacology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Morken, J. P. (2014). Organic chemistry: Catalysis marches on. Nature 508, 324–325.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zou, Z., and Buck, L. B. (2006). Combinatorial effects of odorant mixes in olfactory cortex. Science 311, 1477–1481.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gollihar, J., Levy, M., and Ellington, A. D. (2014). Biochemistry. Many paths to the origin of life. Science 343, 259–260.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Schopf, J. W., Kudryavtsev, A. B., Agresti, D. G., Wdowiak, T. J., and Czaja, A. D. (2002). Laser--Raman imagery of Earth’s earliest fossils. Nature 416, 73–76.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bonneau, D., Fatu, A., and Souchet, D. (2014). Thermo-Hydrodynamic Lubrication in Hydrodynamic Bearings. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Deising, H. B. ed. (2009). Plant Relationships. 2nd Edition. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Féray, V., Méliot, P.-L., and Nikeghbali, A. (2016). “Fluctuations in the non-lattice case,” in Mod-ϕ Convergence: Normality Zones and Precise Deviations SpringerBriefs in Probability and Mathematical Statistics., eds. P.-L. Méliot and A. Nikeghbali (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 33–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Cardiovascular and Smooth Muscle Pharmacology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Climate Meme Debunked As The ‘Tropospheric Hot Spot’ Is Found. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1982). NSF Experiment in Research Grant Administration Promising. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ding, H. (2012). Mode of Action for Hexavalent Chromium Carcinogenicity in Drinking Water.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hirsch, G. A. (2011). The Humanity of the Long-Distance Runner. New York Times, SP10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Morken, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Zou and Buck, 2006; Morken, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zou and Buck, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Schopf et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Cardiovascular and Smooth Muscle Pharmacology
AbbreviationFront. Pharmacol.
ISSN (online)1663-9812
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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