How to format your references using the Frontiers in Built Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Built Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gamwell, L. (2003). Perceptions of science. Beyond the visible--microscopy, nature, and art. Science 299, 49–50.
A journal article with 2 authors
Emery, N. J., and Clayton, N. S. (2004). The mentality of crows: convergent evolution of intelligence in corvids and apes. Science 306, 1903–1907.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tagliabue, G., Eghlidi, H., and Poulikakos, D. (2014). Rapid-response low infrared emission broadband ultrathin plasmonic light absorber. Sci. Rep. 4, 7181.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Cho, D.-Y., Tappertzhofen, S., Waser, R., and Valov, I. (2013). Chemically-inactive interfaces in thin film Ag/AgI systems for resistive switching memories. Sci. Rep. 3, 1169.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Montgomery, G. E., and Schuch, H. C. (2007). GIS Data Conversion Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Pellegrino, C., and Sena-Cruz, J. eds. (2016). Design Procedures for the Use of Composites in Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Structures: State-of-the-Art Report of the RILEM Technical Committee 234-DUC. 1st ed. 2016. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Camarinha-Matos, L. M. (2007). “Collaborative Networks In Industry Trends and Foundations,” in Digital Enterprise Technology: Perspectives and Future Challenges, eds. P. F. Cunha and P. G. Maropoulos (Boston, MA: Springer US), 45–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Built Environment.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015). Most Comprehensive Tree Of Life For 2.3 Million Species Created. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014). Contract Planning and Oversight Practices Were Ineffective Given the Challenges and Risks. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Osifalujo, A. (2015). Code-switching in Working African Americans: Internalized Racism, Minority Status, and Organizational Commitment.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman, J. (2017). The Call of the Wild. New York Times, D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gamwell, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Gamwell, 2003; Emery and Clayton, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Emery and Clayton, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Cho et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Built Environment
AbbreviationFront. Built Environ.
ISSN (online)2297-3362

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