How to format your references using the Frontiers in Built Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Built Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ryan, A. J. (2009). Journal club. A chemist welcomes an ingenious advance in plastics technology. Nature 458, 553.
A journal article with 2 authors
Johnson, L. D. S., and Jameson, S. C. (2009). Immunology. A chronic need for IL-21. Science 324, 1525–1526.
A journal article with 3 authors
Poot-Salazar, A., Hernández-Flores, Á., and Ardisson, P.-L. (2014). Use of the SLW index to calculate growth function in the sea cucumber Isostichopus badionotus. Sci. Rep. 4, 5151.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kerry, P. S., Mohan, S., Russell, R. J. M., Bance, N., Niikura, M., and Pinto, B. M. (2013). Structural basis for a class of nanomolar influenza A neuraminidase inhibitors. Sci. Rep. 3, 2871.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nemethy, L. (2011). Business Exit Planning. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Perneder, R. (2012). Handbook Timing Belts: Principles, Calculations, Applications. , ed. I. Osborne Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sekiya, F., and Sugimoto, A. (2012). “Discrete Polynomial Curve Fitting to Noisy Data,” in Combinatorial Image Analaysis: 15th International Workshop, IWCIA 2012, Austin, TX, USA, November 28-30, 2012. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. R. P. Barneva, V. E. Brimkov, and J. K. Aggarwal (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 59–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Built Environment.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2017). Canadians With Cystic Fibrosis Live 10 Years Longer Than Their American Counterparts. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006). Transportation-Disadvantaged Populations: Actions Needed to Clarify Responsibilities and Increase Preparedness for Evacuations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wheat, B. R. (2015). Effects of intercropping switchgrass in managed pine stands on plant communities and white-tailed deer forage production.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2006). Supreme Court to Weigh Award in a Smoker’s Death. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ryan, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Johnson and Jameson, 2009; Ryan, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Johnson and Jameson, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Kerry et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Built Environment
AbbreviationFront. Built Environ.
ISSN (online)2297-3362

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