How to format your references using the Frontiers in Built Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Built Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski, D. (2009). Retracted paper rattles Korean science. Nature 458, 561.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nash, J. D., and Moum, J. N. (2005). River plumes as a source of large-amplitude internal waves in the coastal ocean. Nature 437, 400–403.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grigoryan, G., Reinke, A. W., and Keating, A. E. (2009). Design of protein-interaction specificity gives selective bZIP-binding peptides. Nature 458, 859–864.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lu, P. J., Zaccarelli, E., Ciulla, F., Schofield, A. B., Sciortino, F., and Weitz, D. A. (2008). Gelation of particles with short-range attraction. Nature 453, 499–503.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Li, W. (2004). Risk Assessment of Power Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dick, J., Kuo, F. Y., Peters, G. W., and Sloan, I. H. eds. (2013). Monte Carlo and Quasi-Monte Carlo Methods 2012. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bottiglia, R. (2016). “Competitive Frontiers in P2P Lending Crowdfunding,” in Crowdfunding for SMEs: A European Perspective, eds. R. Bottiglia and F. Pichler (London: Palgrave Macmillan UK), 61–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Built Environment.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016). New Orleans Is In Big Trouble. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014). Financial Literacy: Overview of Federal Activities, Programs, and Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Robinson, L. M. (2001). Using Time-Resolved Photoluminescence Spectroscopy to Examine Exciton Dynamics in II-VI Semiconductor Nanostructures.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vlasic, B. (2016). Auto Sales Explode, but Detroit Brands No Longer Dominate. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cyranoski, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Nash and Moum, 2005; Cyranoski, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nash and Moum, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Lu et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Built Environment
AbbreviationFront. Built Environ.
ISSN (online)2297-3362

Other styles