How to format your references using the Frontiers in Built Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Built Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jablonski, D. (2004). Extinction: past and present. Nature 427, 589.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gilmore, M. S., and Ferretti, J. J. (2003). Microbiology. The thin line between gut commensal and pathogen. Science 299, 1999–2002.
A journal article with 3 authors
Knigge, C., Coe, M. J., and Podsiadlowski, P. (2011). Two populations of X-ray pulsars produced by two types of supernova. Nature 479, 372–375.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhong, S., Zhang, S., Fan, X., Wu, Q., Yan, L., Dong, J., et al. (2018). A single-cell RNA-seq survey of the developmental landscape of the human prefrontal cortex. Nature 555, 524–528.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pilot, M. J. (2014). Driving Sustainability to Business Success. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Flatté, M. E., and Ţifrea, I. eds. (2007). Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Scuderi, E., Parrinello, R. E., Izal, D., Perrucci, G. P., Fitzek, F. H. P., Palazzo, S., et al. (2010). “A Mobile Platform for Measurements in Dynamic Topology Wireless Networks,” in The Internet of Things: 20th Tyrrhenian Workshop on Digital Communications, eds. D. Giusto, A. Iera, G. Morabito, and L. Atzori (New York, NY: Springer), 49–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Built Environment.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2017). Great Barrier Reef Under Threat Of Being Listed A “World Heritage Site In Danger.” IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003). Reducing Congestion: Congestion Pricing Has Promise for Improving Use of Transportation Infrastructure. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith, C. (2013). The affect of acculturation on obesity among foreign-born Asians residing in the United States.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fisher, L. (2008). QUOTATION OF THE DAY. New York Times, A2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jablonski, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Gilmore and Ferretti, 2003; Jablonski, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gilmore and Ferretti, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhong et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Built Environment
AbbreviationFront. Built Environ.
ISSN (online)2297-3362

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