How to format your references using the Frontiers in Built Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Built Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marquet, P. A. (2002). Ecology. Of predators, prey, and power laws. Science 295, 2229–2230.
A journal article with 2 authors
Limardo, A. J., and Worden, A. Z. (2015). Microbiology: Exclusive networks in the sea. Nature 522, 36–37.
A journal article with 3 authors
Foukal, P., North, G., and Wigley, T. (2004). Climate. A stellar view on solar variations and climate. Science 306, 68–69.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jin, X., Li, Q., Li, Y., Chen, Z., Wei, T.-H., He, X., et al. (2014). Energy level control: toward an efficient hot electron transport. Sci. Rep. 4, 5983.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hein, H., and Kunze, W. (2005). Umweltanalytik mit Spektrometrie und Chromatographie. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Courbage, C. ed. (2016). The Geneva Papers: 40 Years at the Cutting Edge of Research in Insurance Economics. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
El-Mallakh, R. S., Roberts, R. J., and El-Mallakh, P. L. (2014). “Disturbi dell’umore,” in Valutazione e gestione della violenza: Manuale per operatori della salute mentale, ed. K. Tardiff (Milano: Springer), 69–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Built Environment.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Doomed Russian Spacecraft Will Re-Enter Earth’s Atmosphere On May 8th. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1985). Guarantee Agency Funding, Operations, and Reserves Under the Guaranteed Student Loan Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rostambeigi, N. (2010). Analyzing the correlates of patients’ adoption of preventative health services: Perceived risk, cost and availability of health care services.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vlasic, B. (2015). Detroit’s Chief Instigator. New York Times, BU1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marquet, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Limardo and Worden, 2015; Marquet, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Limardo and Worden, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Jin et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Built Environment
AbbreviationFront. Built Environ.
ISSN (online)2297-3362

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