How to format your references using the Freshwater Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Freshwater Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Russo, E. 2002. Chemistry plans a structural overhaul. Nature 419:4–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Flint, J., and R. Mott. 2008. Applying mouse complex-trait resources to behavioural genetics. Nature 456:724–727.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hu, S., T. Shima, and Z. Hou. 2014. Carbon-carbon bond cleavage and rearrangement of benzene by a trinuclear titanium hydride. Nature 512:413–415.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Mah, T.-F., B. Pitts, B. Pellock, G. C. Walker, P. S. Stewart, and G. A. O’Toole. 2003. A genetic basis for Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm antibiotic resistance. Nature 426:306–310.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gywat, O., H. J. Krenner, and J. Berezovsky. 2009. Spins in Optically Active Quantum Dots. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Rustemeyer, T., P. Elsner, S.-M. John, and H. I. Maibach (Eds.). 2012. Kanerva’s Occupational Dermatology. , 2nd edition. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Travascio, F., and W. Y. Gu. 2009. Novel Video-FRAP Method for the Determination of Anisotropic Diffusion: Principles and Optimization. Pages 9–10 in A. J. McGoron, C.-Z. Li, and W.-C. Lin (editors). 25th Southern Biomedical Engineering Conference 2009, 15 – 17 May 2009, Miami, Florida, USA. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Freshwater Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015, February 23. Here’s What Happens To Your Brain When You Give Up Sugar For Lent. IFLScience. IFLScience. (Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Strong Leadership and Partnerships Needed to Address Risk of Major Disruptions. T-AIMD-98-266, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Coleman, M. J. 2010. Surface accuracy analysis and mathematical modeling of deployable large aperture elastic antenna reflectors. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. 2001, November 11. Singed From the Attack, Trees Find a Safer Home. New York Times 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Russo 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Russo 2002, Flint and Mott 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Flint and Mott 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Mah et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFreshwater Science
AbbreviationFreshw. Sci.
ISSN (print)2161-9549
ISSN (online)2161-9565
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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