How to format your references using the Freshwater Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Freshwater Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dzenis, Y. 2008. Materials science. Structural nanocomposites. Science (New York, N.Y.) 319:419–420.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vazquez, J. A., and M. R. Reid. 2004. Probing the accumulation history of the voluminous Toba magma. Science (New York, N.Y.) 305:991–994.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lin, J., I. A. Balabin, and D. N. Beratan. 2005. The nature of aqueous tunneling pathways between electron-transfer proteins. Science (New York, N.Y.) 310:1311–1313.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Salamat, A., M. Deifallah, R. Q. Cabrera, F. Corà, and P. F. McMillan. 2013. Identification of new pillared-layered carbon nitride materials at high pressure. Scientific reports 3:2122.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Voldman, S. H. 2006. ESD. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Ahuja, M. R., and K. G. Ramawat (Eds.). 2014. Biotechnology and Biodiversity. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Galitsky, B. A., D. Ilvovsky, S. O. Kuznetsov, and F. Strok. 2014. Finding Maximal Common Sub-parse Thickets for Multi-sentence Search. Pages 39–57 in M. Croitoru, S. Rudolph, S. Woltran, and C. Gonzales (editors). Graph Structures for Knowledge Representation and Reasoning: Third International Workshop, GKR 2013, Beijing, China, August 3, 2013. Revised Selected Papers. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Freshwater Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2014, March 28. Gorgeous Time Lapse of Slow Marine Animal Movement. IFLScience. IFLScience. (Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. Student Achievement: Schools Use Multiple Strategies to Help Students Meet Academic Standards, Especially Schools with Higher Proportions of Low-Income and Minority Students. GAO-10-18, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bermudez, D. 2008. The effects of Hispanic parent-adolescent biculturalism disparity on male adolescent delinquency. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Antilla, S. 2015, September 22. Fund Settlement. New York Times B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dzenis 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Vazquez and Reid 2004, Dzenis 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vazquez and Reid 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Salamat et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFreshwater Science
AbbreviationFreshw. Sci.
ISSN (print)2161-9549
ISSN (online)2161-9565
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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