How to format your references using the Freshwater Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Freshwater Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Donovan, M. S. 2013. Generating improvement through research and development in education systems. Science (New York, N.Y.) 340:317–319.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li, S., and J. Wang. 2014. A compact trench-assisted multi-orbital-angular-momentum multi-ring fiber for ultrahigh-density space-division multiplexing (19 rings × 22 modes). Scientific reports 4:3853.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grigoryan, G., A. W. Reinke, and A. E. Keating. 2009. Design of protein-interaction specificity gives selective bZIP-binding peptides. Nature 458:859–864.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Vasileiadis, T., V. Dracopoulos, M. Kollia, and S. N. Yannopoulos. 2013. Laser-assisted growth of t-Te nanotubes and their controlled photo-induced unzipping to ultrathin core-Te/sheath-TeO(2) nanowires. Scientific reports 3:1209.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ketring, K. L., and M. B. Glaze. 2012. Atlas of Feline Ophthalmology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, UK.
An edited book
Seherr-Thoss, H. C. 2006. Universal Joints and Driveshafts: Analysis, Design, Applications. (F. Schmelz and E. Aucktor, Eds.). 2nd edition. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Balliauw, M., and X. Decoster. 2012. Publishing Packages. Pages 81–103 in X. Decoster (editor). Pro NuGet. Apress, Berkeley, CA.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Freshwater Science.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. 2016, September 12. A Dietitian Puts Extreme “Clean Eating” Claims To The Test – And The Results Aren’t Pretty. IFLScience. IFLScience. (Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2000. Maintaining Effective Control Over Employee Time and Attendance Reporting. GAO-01-186G, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parker, E. C. 2010. Perceptions of youth with diabetes and their parents/guardians about youth eating habits and nutrition-related difficulties. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MacFARQUHAR, N., and A. E. Kramer. 2015, September 17. Putin Sees Path to Diplomacy Through Syria. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Donovan 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Donovan 2013, Li and Wang 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Li and Wang 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Vasileiadis et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFreshwater Science
AbbreviationFreshw. Sci.
ISSN (print)2161-9549
ISSN (online)2161-9565
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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