How to format your references using the Freshwater Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Freshwater Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kolber, Z. S. 2006. Ecology. Getting a better picture of the ocean’s nitrogen budget. Science (New York, N.Y.) 312:1479–1480.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bergink, S., and S. Jentsch. 2009. Principles of ubiquitin and SUMO modifications in DNA repair. Nature 458:461–467.
A journal article with 3 authors
McCarty, K. F., J. A. Nobel, and N. C. Bartelt. 2001. Vacancies in solids and the stability of surface morphology. Nature 412:622–625.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Guo, J., J. W. Simonson, L. Sun, Q. Wu, P. Gao, C. Zhang, D. Gu, G. Kotliar, M. Aronson, and Z. Zhao. 2013. Observation of antiferromagnetic order collapse in the pressurized insulator LaMnPO. Scientific reports 3:2555.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zheng, F., and T. Kaiser. 2016. Digital Signal Processing for RFID. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Nittel, S., A. Labrinidis, and A. Stefanidis (Eds.). 2008. GeoSensor Networks: Second International Conference, GSN 2006, Boston, MA, USA, October 1-3, 2006, Revised Selected and Invited Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Ettema, R., F. Russo, and P. Huysmans. 2013. Explaining with Mechanisms and Its Impact on Organisational Diagnosis. Pages 58–72 in H. A. Proper, D. Aveiro, and K. Gaaloul (editors). Advances in Enterprise Engineering VII: Third Enterprise Engineering Working Conference, EEWC 2013, Luxembourg, May 13-14, 2013. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Freshwater Science.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2014, November 13. Why European Fruit Flies Hold Their Liquor Better Than Tropical Ones. IFLScience. IFLScience. (Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2010. Telecommunications: Information Collection and Management at the Federal Communications Commission. GAO-10-249, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Weissflug, K. G. 2009. Effects of Positive Behavior Support Programs on Student Behaviors. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland, J. 2016, August 26. Black Enclave’s Newcomers: Mr. and Mrs. L.L.C. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kolber 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Kolber 2006, Bergink and Jentsch 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bergink and Jentsch 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Guo et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFreshwater Science
AbbreviationFreshw. Sci.
ISSN (print)2161-9549
ISSN (online)2161-9565
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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