How to format your references using the Freshwater Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Freshwater Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Elert, E. 2014. Aetiology: Searching for schizophrenia’s roots. Nature 508:S2-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thomas, D. N., and G. S. Dieckmann. 2002. Antarctic Sea ice--a habitat for extremophiles. Science (New York, N.Y.) 295:641–644.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nowak, M. A., N. L. Komarova, and P. Niyogi. 2002. Computational and evolutionary aspects of language. Nature 417:611–617.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Findlay, H. S., S. J. Hennige, L. C. Wicks, J. M. Navas, E. M. S. Woodward, and J. M. Roberts. 2014. Fine-scale nutrient and carbonate system dynamics around cold-water coral reefs in the northeast Atlantic. Scientific reports 4:3671.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McFedries, P. 2010. Twitter Tips, Tricks, and Tweets. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA.
An edited book
Ames, M. 2016. How Pop Culture Shapes the Stages of a Woman’s Life: From Toddlers-in-Tiaras to Cougars-on-the-Prowl. Page (S. Burcon, Ed.). Palgrave Macmillan UK, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Edwards, G. E., and E. V. Voznesenskaya. 2011. Chapter 4 C4 Photosynthesis: Kranz Forms and Single-Cell C4 in Terrestrial Plants. Pages 29–61 in A. S. Raghavendra and R. F. Sage (editors). C4 Photosynthesis and Related CO2 Concentrating Mechanisms. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Freshwater Science.

Blog post
Davis, J. 2015, August 12. Global Extinction Rates Could Be Way Higher Than Previously Thought. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. Federal Research: Changes in Electricity-Related R&D Funding. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rogers, S. 2014. Teacher Induction Programs: How Key Components Influence Teacher Retention Rates in Rural School Districts. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S. 2002, November 4. Downbeat of Feet Uptown in Harlem. New York Times:F6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Elert 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Thomas and Dieckmann 2002, Elert 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thomas and Dieckmann 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Findlay et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFreshwater Science
AbbreviationFreshw. Sci.
ISSN (print)2161-9549
ISSN (online)2161-9565
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles