How to format your references using the Freshwater Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Freshwater Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jahn, R. 2006. Neuroscience. A neuronal receptor for botulinum toxin. Science (New York, N.Y.) 312:540–541.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kobayashi, T., and A. R. D. Ganley. 2005. Recombination regulation by transcription-induced cohesin dissociation in rDNA repeats. Science (New York, N.Y.) 309:1581–1584.
A journal article with 3 authors
Alford, R. A., K. S. Bradfield, and S. J. Richards. 2007. Ecology: global warming and amphibian losses. Nature 447:E3-4; discussion E5-6.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Lopez-Vaamonde, C., J. W. Koning, R. M. Brown, W. C. Jordan, and A. F. G. Bourke. 2004. Social parasitism by male-producing reproductive workers in a eusocial insect. Nature 430:557–560.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harper, C. 2005. Analytic Methods in Physics. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Ortega, Y. R. (Ed.). 2006. Foodborne Parasites. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Watanabe, Y., S. Yoshihama, T. Mishina, M. Kudo, and H. Maruyama. 2006. Bridging the Gap Between Inter-communication Boundary and Internal Trusted Components. Pages 65–80 in D. Gollmann, J. Meier, and A. Sabelfeld (editors). Computer Security – ESORICS 2006: 11th European Symposium on Research in Computer Security, Hamburg, Germany, September 18-20, 2006. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Freshwater Science.

Blog post
Carpineti, C. 2017, May 17. Watch The Moment A Baby Kangaroo Is Rescued From Dead Mother’s Pouch. IFLScience. IFLScience. (Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. School-Age Children: Poverty and Diversity Challenge Schools Nationwide. HEHS-94-132, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
van der Steen, R. 2015. Intended infidelity: Male-female differences in intention-behavior congruence and the relative prediction power of gender, relationship and individual difference variables. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. 2017, June 15. Spotify Is Growing. So Are Its Losses. New York Times B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jahn 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Kobayashi and Ganley 2005, Jahn 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kobayashi and Ganley 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Lopez-Vaamonde et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleFreshwater Science
AbbreviationFreshw. Sci.
ISSN (print)2161-9549
ISSN (online)2161-9565
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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