How to format your references using the Chemosphere citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chemosphere. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ke, D.-G., 2013. Unifying complexity and information. Sci. Rep. 3, 1585.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sesma, A., Osbourn, A.E., 2004. The rice leaf blast pathogen undergoes developmental processes typical of root-infecting fungi. Nature 431, 582–586.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ta, V.D., Chen, R., Sun, H.D., 2013. Tuning whispering gallery mode lasing from self-assembled polymer droplets. Sci. Rep. 3, 1362.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Su, S.-H., Xu, W., Hai, J., Wu, Y.-F., Yu, F., 2014. Effects of statins-use for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Sci. Rep. 4, 4573.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Caferra, R., 2011. Logic for Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Bhushan, B., Fuchs, H., Tomitori, M. (Eds.), 2008. Applied Scanning Probe Methods VIII: Scanning Probe Microscopy Techniques, Nano Science and Technolgy. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Callo-Concha, D., Sommer, J.H., Kleemann, J., Gatzweiler, F.W., Denich, M., 2014. Marginality from a Socio-ecological Perspective, in: von Braun, J., Gatzweiler, F.W. (Eds.), Marginality: Addressing the Nexus of Poverty, Exclusion and Ecology. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 57–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chemosphere.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. ‘Rubber Hand’ Illusion May Build Understanding of Sensory Processing In Autistic Brains [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1978. Federal Direction Needed for Educating Handicapped Children in State Schools (No. HRD-78-6). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hoch, V.A., 2014. The Effects of Systematic Reinforcement on Academic Performance in Precision Teaching: An Investigation of Acquisition, Retention, and Endurance (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Erlanger, S., Kanter, J., 2017. Austria’s Rightward Lurch Reflects Europe’s New Anti-Immigration Leanings. New York Times A5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ke, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Ke, 2013; Sesma and Osbourn, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sesma and Osbourn, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Su et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleChemosphere
ISSN (print)0045-6535
ScopeGeneral Chemistry
Environmental Chemistry
General Medicine

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