How to format your references using the Chemosphere citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chemosphere. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chambers, S.A., 2014. Surface Science. Stability at the surface. Science 346, 1186–1187.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sansom, R.S., Wills, M.A., 2013. Fossilization causes organisms to appear erroneously primitive by distorting evolutionary trees. Sci. Rep. 3, 2545.
A journal article with 3 authors
Culley, A.I., Lang, A.S., Suttle, C.A., 2003. High diversity of unknown picorna-like viruses in the sea. Nature 424, 1054–1057.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Oulton, R.F., Sorger, V.J., Zentgraf, T., Ma, R.-M., Gladden, C., Dai, L., Bartal, G., Zhang, X., 2009. Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale. Nature 461, 629–632.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stokes, G., 2008. A Practical Guide to the Wiring Regulations. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Warren, R., Menter, A. (Eds.), 2016. Handbook of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis, 1st ed. 2016. ed. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Sutter-Dallay, A.-L., Riecher-Rössler, A., 2016. Psychotropic Drugs and the Perinatal Period, in: Sutter-Dallay, A.-L., Glangeaud-Freudenthal, N.M.-C., Guedeney, A., Riecher-Rössler, A. (Eds.), Joint Care of Parents and Infants in Perinatal Psychiatry. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 79–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chemosphere.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Work On Devastating Parasitic Diseases Wins Nobel Prize [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2000. Federal Research: DOE Is Providing Independent Review of the Scientific Merit of Its Research (No. RCED-00-109). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shimpeno, P.D., 2010. Consumed: Simple Choices, Complex Problems (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2008. Justices Take Up Battle Over Exxon Valdez Damages. New York Times A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chambers, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Chambers, 2014; Sansom and Wills, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sansom and Wills, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Oulton et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleChemosphere
ISSN (print)0045-6535
ScopeGeneral Chemistry
Environmental Chemistry
General Medicine

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