How to format your references using the Chemosphere citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chemosphere. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Socha, J.J., 2014. Applied Physics. Of snakes and robots. Science 346, 160–161.
A journal article with 2 authors
Teague, B.P., Weiss, R., 2015. SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY. Synthetic communities, the sum of parts. Science 349, 924–925.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mahadevan, A., Thomas, L.N., Tandon, A., 2008. Comment on “Eddy/wind interactions stimulate extraordinary mid-ocean plankton blooms.” Science 320, 448; author reply 448.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lopert, A., Rijavec, M., Zavbi, M., Korošec, P., Fležar, M., 2013. Asthma treatment outcome in adults is associated with rs9910408 in TBX21 gene. Sci. Rep. 3, 2915.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vitetta, G.M., Taylor, D.P., Colavolpe, G., Pancaldi, F., Martin, P.A., 2013. Wireless Communications. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Yamanouchi, K., Giulietti, A., Ledingham, K. (Eds.), 2010. Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science: Volume V, Springer Series in Chemical Physics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Pyka, A., Saviotti, P.P., 2011. Economic Growth Through the Emergence of New Sectors, in: Mann, S. (Ed.), Sectors Matter!: Exploring Mesoeconomics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 55–101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chemosphere.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Alien Worlds: Most Stars Have Planets In The Habitable Zone [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1980. Areas Needing Improvement in the Adult Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (No. CED-80-138). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boysen, J., 2008. The ESCRT machinery, required for endosomal trafficking, is a pH-signaling platform (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
LINDA GREENHOUSE; Karen W. Arenson contributed reporting from New York for this article, 2006. U.S. WINS RULING OVER RECRUITING AT UNIVERSITIES. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Socha, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Socha, 2014; Teague and Weiss, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Teague and Weiss, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Lopert et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleChemosphere
ISSN (print)0045-6535
ScopeGeneral Chemistry
Environmental Chemistry
General Medicine

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