How to format your references using the Chemosphere citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chemosphere. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wadman, M., 2000. Women and ethnic minorities needed for US skills gap. Nature 404, 800.
A journal article with 2 authors
Baughn, A.D., Malamy, M.H., 2004. The strict anaerobe Bacteroides fragilis grows in and benefits from nanomolar concentrations of oxygen. Nature 427, 441–444.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hu, Z.-X., Lan, H., Ji, W., 2014. Role of the dispersion force in modeling the interfacial properties of molecule-metal interfaces: adsorption of thiophene on copper surfaces. Sci. Rep. 4, 5036.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Vigolo, B., Coulon, C., Maugey, M., Zakri, C., Poulin, P., 2005. An experimental approach to the percolation of sticky nanotubes. Science 309, 920–923.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith, J.T., 1999. Methods of Geometry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Bolc, L., Tadeusiewicz, R., Chmielewski, L.J., Wojciechowski, K. (Eds.), 2012. Computer Vision and Graphics: International Conference, ICCVG 2012, Warsaw, Poland, September 24-26, 2012. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Lombardi, L.R., Kreys, E., Gerry, S., Boullata, J.I., 2010. Nutrition in the Age of Polypharmacy, in: Bendich, A., Deckelbaum, R.J. (Eds.), Preventive Nutrition: The Comprehensive Guide for Health Professionals. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp. 79–123.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chemosphere.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Why The Causes Of Cancer Are More Than Just Random ‘Bad Luck’ [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. Aviation Research: Perspectives on FAA’s Efforts to Develop New Technology (No. T-RCED-95-193). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Banuelos, J., 2010. Deficit irrigation of bermudagrass and seashore paspalum for golf course turf (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G.G., 2016. At School, a ‘March’ Through the Civil Rights Movement in Visual Detail. New York Times C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wadman, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Baughn and Malamy, 2004; Wadman, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Baughn and Malamy, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Vigolo et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleChemosphere
ISSN (print)0045-6535
ScopeGeneral Chemistry
Environmental Chemistry
General Medicine

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