How to format your references using the Chemosphere citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chemosphere. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Russo, E., 2002. Biodefence research. Nature 416, 4–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yamaguchi, K.E., Ohmoto, H., 2006. Comment on “Iron isotope constraints on the Archean and Paleoproterozoic ocean redox state.” Science 311, 177; author reply 177.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cui, M., Emrick, T., Russell, T.P., 2013. Stabilizing liquid drops in nonequilibrium shapes by the interfacial jamming of nanoparticles. Science 342, 460–463.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Masai, H., Yamada, Y., Suzuki, Y., Teramura, K., Kanemitsu, Y., Yoko, T., 2013. Narrow energy gap between triplet and singlet excited states of Sn2+ in borate glass. Sci. Rep. 3, 3541.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schneider, H.J., 2013. Wittgenstein’s Later Theory of Meaning. John Wiley & Sons Inc., Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Chiti, E., Mattarella, B.G. (Eds.), 2011. Global Administrative Law and EU Administrative Law: Relationships, Legal Issues and Comparison. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Chaganti, L.K., Singh, N., Bose, K., 2015. Cathepsins and HtrAs – Multitasking Proteases in Programmed Cell Death, in: Bose, K. (Ed.), Proteases in Apoptosis: Pathways, Protocols and Translational Advances. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 95–141.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chemosphere.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Newly Discovered Rocky Planet Expands Our Search For Habitable Worlds [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2009. Federal Research: Information on the Government’s Right to Assert Ownership Control over Federally Funded Inventions (No. GAO-09-742). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Valenzuela, M.A., 2017. Pitties for the Kiddies: An Animal-Assisted Therapy Program (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B., 2016. Helping Hands for Damaged Limbs. New York Times B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Russo, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Russo, 2002; Yamaguchi and Ohmoto, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yamaguchi and Ohmoto, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Masai et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleChemosphere
ISSN (print)0045-6535
ScopeGeneral Chemistry
Environmental Chemistry
General Medicine

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