How to format your references using the Chemosphere citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chemosphere. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Owens, B., 2015. Addiction. Nature 522, S45.
A journal article with 2 authors
Campbell, I.H., O’Neill, H.S.C., 2012. Evidence against a chondritic Earth. Nature 483, 553–558.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nielsen, S., Yuzenkova, Y., Zenkin, N., 2013. Mechanism of eukaryotic RNA polymerase III transcription termination. Science 340, 1577–1580.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Robert, A., Sirjean, O., Browaeys, A., Poupard, J., Nowak, S., Boiron, D., Westbrook, C.I., Aspect, A., 2001. A Bose-Einstein condensate of metastable atoms. Science 292, 461–464.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Singh, J., 2017. Functional Software Size Measurement Methodology with Effort Estimation and Performance Indication. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Hjemdahl, P., Steptoe, A., Rosengren, A. (Eds.), 2012. Stress and Cardiovascular Disease. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Verstraete, J., 2011. Higher Reasoning with Level-2 Fuzzy Regions, in: Christiansen, H., Tré, G.D., Yazici, A., Zadrozny, S., Andreasen, T., Larsen, H.L. (Eds.), Flexible Query Answering Systems: 9th International Conference, FQAS 2011, Ghent, Belgium, October 26-28, 2011 Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 49–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chemosphere.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. Mars Astronauts May Suffer Dementia Due To Cosmic Radiation [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. Governmentwide Initiatives: Critical Issues Facing the Post-FTS 2000 Program (No. T-AIMD-95-108). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Herrlich, A., 2010. Transparency and medical interventions in vital statistics reports: Quantitative research and analysis (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K., 2009. A World of Ways To Get That Grilled Taste. New York Times NJ11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Owens, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Campbell and O’Neill, 2012; Owens, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Campbell and O’Neill, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Robert et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleChemosphere
ISSN (print)0045-6535
ScopeGeneral Chemistry
Environmental Chemistry
General Medicine

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