How to format your references using the Freshwater Crayfish citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Freshwater Crayfish. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Featherstone D (2009). Journal club. A neuroscientist argues for a broader approach to brain mapping. Nature 458(7241): 949.
A journal article with 2 authors
Custance O and Morita S (2008). Materials science. How to move an atom. Science (New York, N.Y.) 319(5866): 1051–1052.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schmitz D, Mellor J and Nicoll RA (2001). Presynaptic kainate receptor mediation of frequency facilitation at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses. Science (New York, N.Y.) 291(5510): 1972–1976.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sawa M, Nusinow DA, Kay SA and Imaizumi T (2007). FKF1 and GIGANTEA complex formation is required for day-length measurement in Arabidopsis. Science (New York, N.Y.) 318(5848): 261–265.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith MC and Sherman DM (2009). Goat Medicine. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Kang L, Liu Y and Zeng S (eds.) (2007). Evolvable Systems: From Biology to Hardware: 7th International Conference, ICES 2007, Wuhan, China, September 21-23, 2007 Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Foss S, Korshunov D and Zachary S (2011). Densities and Local Probabilities. Pp. 71–96, In: Korshunov D, Zachary S (eds.) An Introduction to Heavy-Tailed and Subexponential Distributions, Springer Series in Operations Research and Financial Engineering. Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Freshwater Crayfish.

Blog post
Evans K (2017). Seafood Eaters May Be Ingesting Up To 11,000 Microplastic Particles A Year. IFLScience.[accessed30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2017). Aviation Security: TSA Has Made Progress Implementing Requirements in the Aviation Security Act of 2016. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yu H (2009). Parasitism of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae: Termitidae) by entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda: Steinernematidae: Heterorhabditidae). Doctoral dissertation Thesis, University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K (2009). Cheese, Please. New York Times: NJ7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Featherstone 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Custance and Morita 2008; Featherstone 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Custance and Morita 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Sawa et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleFreshwater Crayfish
AbbreviationFreshw. Crayfish
ISSN (print)2076-4324
ISSN (online)2076-4332

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