How to format your references using the Freshwater Crayfish citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Freshwater Crayfish. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koretz D (2009). Education. Moving past No Child Left Behind. Science (New York, N.Y.) 326(5954): 803–804.
A journal article with 2 authors
Worby CA and Dixon JE (2006). Microbiology. Bacteria seize control by acetylating host proteins. Science (New York, N.Y.) 312(5777): 1150–1151.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ikegami H, Tsutsumi Y and Kono K (2013). Chiral symmetry breaking in superfluid 3He-A. Science (New York, N.Y.) 341(6141): 59–62.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pah AR, Guimerà R, Mustoe AM and Amaral LAN (2013). Use of a global metabolic network to curate organismal metabolic networks. Scientific reports 3: 1695.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Homer S and Leibowitz ML (2013). Inside the Yield Book. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Squires V, Hua L, Li G and Zhang D (eds.) (2010). Towards Sustainable Use of Rangelands in North-West China. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Tanaka K, Yamada A and Yasunaga K (2011). Weak Oblivious Transfer from Strong One-Way Functions. Pp. 34–51, In: Boyen X, Chen X (eds.) Provable Security: 5th International Conference, ProvSec 2011, Xi’an, China, October 16-18, 2011. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Freshwater Crayfish.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2014). Watch NASA’s “All About That Space” Parody Music Video. IFLScience.[accessed30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999). Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Readiness Improving, But Critical Risks Remain. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ryan HL (2009). Normalizing happiness: The rhetoric of depression in Direct -to -Consumer advertising. Doctoral dissertation Thesis, University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Winerip M and Schwirtz M (2015). Prison Guard ‘Beat Up Squad’ Blamed in Death. New York Times: A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Koretz 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Worby and Dixon 2006; Koretz 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Worby and Dixon 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Pah et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFreshwater Crayfish
AbbreviationFreshw. Crayfish
ISSN (print)2076-4324
ISSN (online)2076-4332

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