How to format your references using the Freshwater Crayfish citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Freshwater Crayfish. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wilbanks J (2013). Licence restrictions: A fool’s errand. Nature 495(7442): 440–441.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tedford RH and Harington CR (2003). An Arctic mammal fauna from the Early Pliocene of North America. Nature 425(6956): 388–390.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lederer WJ, Hagen BM and Zhao G (2012). Cell biology. Superresolution subspace signaling. Science (New York, N.Y.) 336(6081): 546–547.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Song J-J, Smith SK, Hannon GJ and Joshua-Tor L (2004). Crystal structure of Argonaute and its implications for RISC slicer activity. Science (New York, N.Y.) 305(5689): 1434–1437.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sehgal V (2011). Supply Chain as Strategic Asset. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Gerdt VP, Koepf W, Seiler WM and Vorozhtsov EV (eds.) (2015). Computer Algebra in Scientific Computing: 17th International Workshop, CASC 2015, Aachen, Germany, September 14-18, 2015, Proceedings, 1st ed. 2015. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Larco N, Kelsey K and West A (2014). Project Checklist. Pp. 87–89, In: Kelsey K, West A (eds.) Site Design for Multifamily Housing: Creating Livable, Connected Neighborhoods, Island Press/Center for Resource Economics, Washington, DC.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Freshwater Crayfish.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014). Scientists Grow Miniature Beating Hearts In The Lab. IFLScience.[accessed30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997). Federal Communications Commission: International Settlement Rates. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wellman TE (2017). Employment Discrimination against Military Spouses: Illegal Contrary to Popular Belief and Practice. Doctoral dissertation Thesis, George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B (2017). School Life. New York Times: C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wilbanks 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Tedford and Harington 2003; Wilbanks 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tedford and Harington 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Song et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleFreshwater Crayfish
AbbreviationFreshw. Crayfish
ISSN (print)2076-4324
ISSN (online)2076-4332

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