How to format your references using the Freshwater Crayfish citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Freshwater Crayfish. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Berendsen HJ (2001). Bioinformatics. Reality simulation--observe while it happens. Science (New York, N.Y.) 294(5550): 2304–2305.
A journal article with 2 authors
Papke RT and Gogarten JP (2012). Ecology. How bacterial lineages emerge. Science (New York, N.Y.) 336(6077): 45–46.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sampat BN, Shadlen KC and Amin TM (2012). Intellectual property. Challenges to India’s pharmaceutical patent laws. Science (New York, N.Y.) 337(6093): 414–415.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Thorrold SR, Latkoczy C, Swart PK and Jones CM (2001). Natal homing in a marine fish metapopulation. Science (New York, N.Y.) 291(5502): 297–299.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Svensson H (2011). Schrägkabelbrücken. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
O’Connor RV, Umay Akkaya M, Kemaneci K, Yilmaz M, Poth A and Messnarz R (eds.) (2015). Systems, Software and Services Process Improvement: 22nd European Conference, EuroSPI 2015, Ankara, Turkey, September 30 -- October 2, 2015. Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Vermeulen F (2016). Towards a Holistic Archaeological Survey Approach for Ancient Cityscapes. Pp. 91–112, In: Forte M, Campana S (eds.) Digital Methods and Remote Sensing in Archaeology: Archaeology in the Age of Sensing, Quantitative Methods in the Humanities and Social Sciences. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Freshwater Crayfish.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015). A New Space Race Is On To Bring The Internet To The Whole World. IFLScience.[accessed30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011). District of Columbia Charter Schools: Criteria for Awarding School Buildings to Charter Schools Needs Additional Transparency. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hawkins JT (2017). A Private Solution to a Public Problem: Managing Hydraulic Fracturing Risks by Enhancing Private Governance through Mandatory Insurance Requirements. Doctoral dissertation Thesis, George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J (2017). Netflix Signs New Deal With Rhimes. New York Times: C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Berendsen 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Berendsen 2001; Papke and Gogarten 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Papke and Gogarten 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Thorrold et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleFreshwater Crayfish
AbbreviationFreshw. Crayfish
ISSN (print)2076-4324
ISSN (online)2076-4332

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