How to format your references using the Freshwater Crayfish citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Freshwater Crayfish. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mervis J (2000). SCIENCE EDUCATION: Ehlers Bill Wins Bipartisan Backing. Science (New York, N.Y.) 289(5480): 713a.
A journal article with 2 authors
Morriswood B and Warren G (2013). Cell biology. Stalemate in the Golgi battle. Science (New York, N.Y.) 341(6153): 1465–1466.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fleurquin P, Ramasco JJ and Eguiluz VM (2013). Systemic delay propagation in the US airport network. Scientific reports 3: 1159.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rasmussen B, Bengtson S, Fletcher IR and McNaughton NJ (2002). Discoidal impressions and trace-like fossils more than 1200 million years old. Science (New York, N.Y.) 296(5570): 1112–1115.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Knuth E (2011). Trading Between the Lines. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Zhou J, Lopez J, Deng RH and Bao F (eds.) (2005). Information Security: 8th International Conference, ISC 2005, Singapore, September 20-23, 2005. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Liu W and Winfield AFT (2012). Distributed Autonomous Morphogenesis in a Self-Assembling Robotic System. Pp. 89–113, In: Doursat R, Sayama H, Michel O (eds.) Morphogenetic Engineering: Toward Programmable Complex Systems, Understanding Complex Systems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Freshwater Crayfish.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015). World Hunger Has Significantly Dropped Despite Population Growth. IFLScience.[accessed30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1981). Comments on H.R. 5103, Snyder letter. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ortiz-Quiusky S (2015). Substance abuse, smoking, and depression among military veterans. Doctoral dissertation Thesis, California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Prochnik G (2015). Days of Observance. New York Times: BR16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mervis 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Mervis 2000; Morriswood and Warren 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Morriswood and Warren 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Rasmussen et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFreshwater Crayfish
AbbreviationFreshw. Crayfish
ISSN (print)2076-4324
ISSN (online)2076-4332

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