How to format your references using the Freshwater Crayfish citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Freshwater Crayfish. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Savage N (2015). Mobile data: Made to measure. Nature 527(7576): S12-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reilly SM and White TD (2003). Hypaxial motor patterns and the function of epipubic bones in primitive mammals. Science (New York, N.Y.) 299(5605): 400–402.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pulendran B, Palucka K and Banchereau J (2001). Sensing pathogens and tuning immune responses. Science (New York, N.Y.) 293(5528): 253–256.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Münker C, Pfänder JA, Weyer S, Büchl A, Kleine T and Mezger K (2003). Evolution of planetary cores and the Earth-Moon system from Nb/Ta systematics. Science (New York, N.Y.) 301(5629): 84–87.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rossi RJ (2006). Theorems, Corollaries, Lemmas, and Methods of Proof. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Frank U, Loucopoulos P, Pastor Ó and Petrounias I (eds.) (2014). The Practice of Enterprise Modeling: 7th IFIP WG 8.1 Working Conference, PoEM 2014, Manchester, UK, November 12-13, 2014. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Podtelezhnikov AA and Wild DL (2012). Inferring Knowledge Based Potentials Using Contrastive Divergence. Pp. 135–155, In: Hamelryck T, Mardia K, Ferkinghoff-Borg J (eds.) Bayesian Methods in Structural Bioinformatics, Statistics for Biology and Health. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Freshwater Crayfish.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015). Publish Or Perish Culture Encourages Scientists To Cut Corners. IFLScience.[accessed30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000). FAA Computer Security: Recommendations to Address Continuing Weaknesses. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Che H (2009). Non-linear development of streaming instabilities in magnetic reconnection with a strong guide field. Doctoral dissertation Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MacFARQUHAR N (2015). Conspiracy Theories Mix With Somber Condolences. New York Times: A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Savage 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Reilly and White 2003; Savage 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Reilly and White 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Münker et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFreshwater Crayfish
AbbreviationFreshw. Crayfish
ISSN (print)2076-4324
ISSN (online)2076-4332

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