How to format your references using the Freshwater Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Freshwater Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wand A.J. (2001). On the dynamic origins of allosteric activation. Science (New York, N.Y.) 293, 1395
A journal article with 2 authors
Whorton M.R. & MacKinnon R. (2013). X-ray structure of the mammalian GIRK2-βγ G-protein complex. Nature 498, 190–197
A journal article with 3 authors
Young I.R., Zieger S. & Babanin A.V. (2011). Global trends in wind speed and wave height. Science (New York, N.Y.) 332, 451–455
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hettich C., Schmitt C., Zitzmann J., Kühn S., Gerhardt I. & Sandoghdar V. (2002). Nanometer resolution and coherent optical dipole coupling of two individual molecules. Science (New York, N.Y.) 298, 385–389

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Davies J. (2010). Implementing SSL/TLS Using Cryptography and PKI. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA.
An edited book
Birge J.R. (2011). Introduction to Stochastic Programming. (Ed. F. Louveaux), Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Rahman H., Barua S., Ahmed M.U., Begum S. & Hök B. (2016). A Case-Based Classification for Drivers’ Alcohol Detection Using Physiological Signals. In: Internet of Things Technologies for HealthCare: Third International Conference, HealthyIoT 2016, Västerås, Sweden, October 18-19, 2016, Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, (Eds M.U. Ahmed, S. Begum & W. Raad), pp. 22–29. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Freshwater Biology.

Blog post
Andrew E. (2014). Five edible insects you really should try. IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014). Federal Student Loans: Oversight of Defaulted Loan Rehabilitation Needs Strengthening. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Estrada M.I. (2012). A community risk assessment of the 90806 zip code. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. & Belson K. (2012). Two Sprinters Agree to Runoff For Olympic Spot. New York Times, D1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wand, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Wand, 2001; Whorton & MacKinnon, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Whorton & MacKinnon, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Young, Zieger & Babanin, 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Hettich et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFreshwater Biology
AbbreviationFreshw. Biol.
ISSN (print)0046-5070
ISSN (online)1365-2427
ScopeAquatic Science

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