How to format your references using the Freshwater Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Freshwater Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Golbeck J. (2008). Computer science. Weaving a Web of trust. Science (New York, N.Y.) 321, 1640–1641
A journal article with 2 authors
Morgan M.A. & Shilatifard A. (2013). Medicine. (Poly)combing the pediatric cancer genome for answers. Science (New York, N.Y.) 340, 823–824
A journal article with 3 authors
Ruefli-Brasse A.A., French D.M. & Dixit V.M. (2003). Regulation of NF-kappaB-dependent lymphocyte activation and development by paracaspase. Science (New York, N.Y.) 302, 1581–1584
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Beatty G.L., Chiorean E.G., Fishman M.P., Saboury B., Teitelbaum U.R., Sun W., et al. (2011). CD40 agonists alter tumor stroma and show efficacy against pancreatic carcinoma in mice and humans. Science (New York, N.Y.) 331, 1612–1616

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chappell D. (2008). Parris’s Standard Form of Building Contract. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Figlin R.A., Rathmell W.K. & Rini B.I. eds (2012). Renal Cell Carcinoma: Translational Biology, Personalized Medicine, and Novel Therapeutic Targets. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Beaudry M. & Lemieux F. (2009). Faithful Loops for Aperiodic E-Ordered Monoids. In: Automata, Languages and Programming: 36th Internatilonal Collogquium, ICALP 2009, Rhodes, greece, July 5-12, 2009, Proceedings, Part II. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, (Eds S. Albers, A. Marchetti-Spaccamela, Y. Matias, S. Nikoletseas & W. Thomas), pp. 55–66. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Freshwater Biology.

Blog post
Hamilton K. (2016). Food Security And Why Christmas Dinner Is In Peril. IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993). Test and Evaluation: DOD Has Been Slow In Improving Testing of Software-Intensive Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fountain J.M. (2014). Differences in Generational Work Values in America and Their Implications for Educational Leadership: A Longitudinal Test of Twenge’s Model. University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hess F.M. & Darling-Hammond L. (2011). How to Rescue Education Reform. New York Times, A29

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Golbeck, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Golbeck, 2008; Morgan & Shilatifard, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Morgan & Shilatifard, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Ruefli-Brasse, French & Dixit, 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Beatty et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleFreshwater Biology
AbbreviationFreshw. Biol.
ISSN (print)0046-5070
ISSN (online)1365-2427
ScopeAquatic Science

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