How to format your references using the Freshwater Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Freshwater Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zimmer C. (2004). Beyond the ivory tower. A distant mirror for the brain. Science (New York, N.Y.) 303, 43–44
A journal article with 2 authors
Mitchell-Olds T. & Knight C.A. (2002). Evolution. Chaperones as buffering agents? Science (New York, N.Y.) 296, 2348–2349
A journal article with 3 authors
Grutzendler J., Kasthuri N. & Gan W.-B. (2002). Long-term dendritic spine stability in the adult cortex. Nature 420, 812–816
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Beck R.D., Maroni P., Papageorgopoulos D.C., Dang T.T., Schmid M.P. & Rizzo T.R. (2003). Vibrational mode-specific reaction of methane on a nickel surface. Science (New York, N.Y.) 302, 98–100

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dunnivant F.M. & Anders E. (2005). A Basic Introduction to Pollutant Fate and Transport. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Nyhuis P. (2009). Fundamentals of Production Logistics: Theory, Tools and Applications. (Ed. H.-P. Wiendahl), Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Kroon F. (2016). The Radical Emptiness of Empty Terms: Saving the Buddhists from the Nyāya. In: Comparative Philosophy and J.L. Shaw. Sophia Studies in Cross-cultural Philosophy of Traditions and Cultures, (Eds P. Bilimoria & M. Hemmingsen), pp. 39–53. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Freshwater Biology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. (2015). Amazon Founder’s Rocket Company Will Be Launching From Florida. IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994). Health, Education, Employment, and Income Security Reports. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Starner R.N. (2013). Expanding the Scope of Silyl Protecting Groups for Sialylation Reactions. Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B. (2016). Edmonton’s Abuzz? Think Prodigy. New York Times, B9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zimmer, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Mitchell-Olds & Knight, 2002; Zimmer, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mitchell-Olds & Knight, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Grutzendler, Kasthuri & Gan, 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Beck et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFreshwater Biology
AbbreviationFreshw. Biol.
ISSN (print)0046-5070
ISSN (online)1365-2427
ScopeAquatic Science

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