How to format your references using the Freshwater Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Freshwater Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schnabel J. (2010). Secrets of the shaking palsy. Nature 466, S2-5
A journal article with 2 authors
Grey K. & Calver C.R. (2007). Ediacaran oxidation and biotic evolution. Nature 450, E17; discussion E18
A journal article with 3 authors
Ambrose K.V., Koppenhöfer A.M. & Belanger F.C. (2014). Horizontal gene transfer of a bacterial insect toxin gene into the Epichloë fungal symbionts of grasses. Scientific reports 4, 5562
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jin R., Rummel A., Binz T. & Brunger A.T. (2006). Botulinum neurotoxin B recognizes its protein receptor with high affinity and specificity. Nature 444, 1092–1095

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lutzke D. (2012). Surfen in die digitale Zukunft. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Zou W.-Q. & Gambetti P. eds (2013). Prions and Diseases: Volume 1, Physiology and Pathophysiology. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Kim Y.J., Yang J.Y., Kim Y.M., Lee J. & Choi C. (2016). Modeling Behavior of Mobile Application Using Discrete Event System Formalism. In: Model Design and Simulation Analysis: 15th International Conference, AsiaSim 2015, Jeju, Korea, November 4-7, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. Communications in Computer and Information Science, (Eds S.Y. Ohn & S.D. Chi), pp. 40–48. Springer, Singapore.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Freshwater Biology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. (2015). Light-Based Data Breakthrough Could Lead To Much Faster Computers. IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999). Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Readiness of Key State-Administered Federal Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Palmer C.M. (2010). Intramural scheduling time preferences to increase student participation. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B. (2016). Big Opening for J. Cole as Album Makes No. 1. New York Times, C3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schnabel, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Grey & Calver, 2007; Schnabel, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Grey & Calver, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Ambrose, Koppenhöfer & Belanger, 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Jin et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleFreshwater Biology
AbbreviationFreshw. Biol.
ISSN (print)0046-5070
ISSN (online)1365-2427
ScopeAquatic Science

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