How to format your references using the Free Radical Biology and Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Free Radical Biology and Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
W.-D. Hardt, Antibiotics: Homed to the hideout, Nature. 527 (2015) 309–310.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Gillon, D. Yakir, Influence of carbonic anhydrase activity in terrestrial vegetation on the 18O content of atmospheric CO2, Science. 291 (2001) 2584–2587.
A journal article with 3 authors
G. Di Toro, D.L. Goldsby, T.E. Tullis, Friction falls towards zero in quartz rock as slip velocity approaches seismic rates, Nature. 427 (2004) 436–439.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T. Wei, Y. Tian, F. Chen, M. Cai, J. Zhang, X. Jing, F. Wang, Q. Zhang, S. Xu, Mid-infrared fluorescence, energy transfer process and rate equation analysis in Er3+ doped germanate glass, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6060.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G.A. Juhnke, D.H. Granello, P.F. Granello, Suicide, Self-Injury, and Violence in the Schools, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
G.T. Houlsby, Principles of Hyperplasticity: An Approach to Plasticity Theory Based on Thermodynamic Principles, Springer, London, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Winzer, E. Malić, A. Knorr, Graphene Bloch Equations, in: R. Egger, D. Matrasulov, K. Rakhimov (Eds.), Low-Dimensional Functional Materials, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2013: pp. 35–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Free Radical Biology and Medicine.

Blog post
J. Fang, Giant, “Living Fossil” Fish Has A Vestigial Lung, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Gas Pipeline Safety: Views on Proposed Legislation to Reauthorize Pipeline Safety Provisions, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
O. Sylvain, Domesticating “the Great, Throbbing, Common Pulse of America”: A Study of the Ideological Origins of the Radio Act of 1927, Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L.S. Park, Origin of a Species, New York Times. (2017) BR17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFree Radical Biology and Medicine
AbbreviationFree Radic. Biol. Med.
ISSN (print)0891-5849
Physiology (medical)

Other styles