How to format your references using the Free Radical Biology and Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Free Radical Biology and Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Thor, Neuroscience: stem cells in multiple time zones, Nature. 498 (2013) 441–443.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Schulze, A.L. Harris, How cancer metabolism is tuned for proliferation and vulnerable to disruption, Nature. 491 (2012) 364–373.
A journal article with 3 authors
R. Biek, A.J. Drummond, M. Poss, A virus reveals population structure and recent demographic history of its carnivore host, Science. 311 (2006) 538–541.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Lewis, T.N. Sherratt, K.C. Hamer, S. Wanless, Evidence of intra-specific competition for food in a pelagic seabird, Nature. 412 (2001) 816–819.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
V. Sundar, Ocean Wave Mechanics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2015.
An edited book
A. Pardo, A. Viola, eds., LATIN 2014: Theoretical Informatics: 11th Latin American Symposium, Montevideo, Uruguay, March 31–April 4, 2014. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Isaias, T. Issa, Web Site Development Methodologies, in: T. Issa (Ed.), High Level Models and Methodologies for Information Systems, Springer, New York, NY, 2015: pp. 63–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Free Radical Biology and Medicine.

Blog post
J. Davis, Human Embryos Grown In Lab For Record Period Of Time, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Transportation Infrastructure: Reshaping the Federal Role Poses Significant Challenge for Policy Makers, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
H.-C. Hsieh, Self-access center and autonomous learning: EFL college students’ motivations, activities and perceptions of learning effectiveness, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Eisinger, The Fall Guy, New York Times. (2014) MM34.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFree Radical Biology and Medicine
AbbreviationFree Radic. Biol. Med.
ISSN (print)0891-5849
Physiology (medical)

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