How to format your references using the Free Radical Biology and Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Free Radical Biology and Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Hellemans, Cantilever tales, Science. 290 (2000) 1529.
A journal article with 2 authors
H.A. Makse, J. Kurchan, Testing the thermodynamic approach to granular matter with a numerical model of a decisive experiment, Nature. 415 (2002) 614–617.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.F. Kasting, D.C. Catling, K. Zahnle, Atmospheric oxygenation and volcanism, Nature. 487 (2012) E1; discussion E2.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. Zeng, J. Li, J.P. Liu, Z.L. Wang, S. Sun, Exchange-coupled nanocomposite magnets by nanoparticle self-assembly, Nature. 420 (2002) 395–398.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
O.G. Kulinkovich, Cyclopropanes in Organic Synthesis, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
F.P.M. Dignum, R.M. van Eijk, R. Flores, eds., Agent Communication II: International Workshops on Agent Communication, AC 2005 and AC 2006, Utrecht, Netherlands, July 25, 2005, and Hakodate, Japan, May 9, 2006, Selected and Revised Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
G. Canfora, M. Di Penta, Service-Oriented Architectures Testing: A Survey, in: A.D. Lucia, F. Ferrucci (Eds.), Software Engineering: International Summer Schools, ISSSE 2006-2008, Salerno, Italy, Revised Tutorial Lectures, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009: pp. 78–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Free Radical Biology and Medicine.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, NASA Has Seen “Spiders” Forming On Mars For The First Time, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Motor Carrier Safety: Preliminary Information on Challenges to Ensuring the Integrity of Drug Testing Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.P. Dusso, The psychology of institutional development: How parties’ willingness to accept risk affects the districts they draw and the seats they win, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
C. Kelly, Americans Are Flocking to Canada’s Pristine Gulf Islands, New York Times. (2005) 1111.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFree Radical Biology and Medicine
AbbreviationFree Radic. Biol. Med.
ISSN (print)0891-5849
Physiology (medical)

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