How to format your references using the Free Radical Biology and Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Free Radical Biology and Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Newman, Applied mathematics. The power of design, Nature. 405 (2000) 412–413.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. Louf, M. Barthelemy, How congestion shapes cities: from mobility patterns to scaling, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5561.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.O. Brunkard, A.M. Runkel, P.C. Zambryski, Evolution. Comment on “A promiscuous intermediate underlies the evolution of LEAFY DNA binding specificity,” Science. 347 (2015) 621.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M.B. Reeves, A.A. Davies, B.P. McSharry, G.W. Wilkinson, J.H. Sinclair, Complex I binding by a virally encoded RNA regulates mitochondria-induced cell death, Science. 316 (2007) 1345–1348.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Z. Wu, Software VNA and Microwave Network Design and Characterisation, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2007.
An edited book
T. McGloughlin, ed., Biomechanics and Mechanobiology of Aneurysms, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Ohye, History of Stereotactic Surgery in Japan, in: A.M. Lozano, P.L. Gildenberg, R.R. Tasker (Eds.), Textbook of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009: pp. 59–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Free Radical Biology and Medicine.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, A Major Barrier To Drone Deliveries In The US Is Finally Being Lifted, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Technology Transfer: Clearer Priorities and Greater Use of Innovative Approaches Could Increase the Effectiveness of Technology Transfer at Department of Energy Laboratories, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Lummus, Perceptions of required leadership behaviors for nurse leaders as measured by the Leadership Practices Inventory, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
W.K. Rashbaum, M. Schwirtz, Rikers Tumult Rises: Monitor Accused of Spying, New York Times. (2017) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFree Radical Biology and Medicine
AbbreviationFree Radic. Biol. Med.
ISSN (print)0891-5849
Physiology (medical)

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