How to format your references using the Geomechanics and Geophysics for Geo-Energy and Geo-Resources citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geomechanics and Geophysics for Geo-Energy and Geo-Resources. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Noller H (2013) Carl Woese (1928-2012). Nature 493:610
A journal article with 2 authors
Kaminski T, Heimann M (2001) Inverse modeling of atmospheric carbon dioxide fluxes. Science 294:259
A journal article with 3 authors
Richardson AR, Libby SJ, Fang FC (2008) A nitric oxide-inducible lactate dehydrogenase enables Staphylococcus aureus to resist innate immunity. Science 319:1672–1676
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Oechel WC, Vourlitis GL, Hastings SJ, et al (2000) Acclimation of ecosystem CO2 exchange in the Alaskan Arctic in response to decadal climate warming. Nature 406:978–981

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Joule JA, Mills K (2012) Heterocyclic Chemistry at a Glance. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Bengtsson L, Bonnet R-M, Grinspoon D, et al (eds) (2013) Towards Understanding the Climate of Venus: Applications of Terrestrial Models to Our Sister Planet. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Pedrera AMM (2013) The Right to Education in Latin America (2005-2010). In: Biseth H, Holmarsdottir HB (eds) Human Rights in the Field of Comparative Education. SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp 57–61

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geomechanics and Geophysics for Geo-Energy and Geo-Resources.

Blog post
Hale T (2017) Can You Spot The 1.8-Meter Snake Lurking In This Photo? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) Health Information Technology: CMS Took Steps to Improve Its Beneficiary Eligibility Verification System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gonzalez SN (2010) Analysis of the impact of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act on California’s children: A report card on the CalWORKs program. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B, Saad H (2016) Evacuation of Aleppo Is Underway, Solidifying Assad’s Control. New York Times A8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Noller 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Kaminski and Heimann 2001; Noller 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kaminski and Heimann 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Oechel et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeomechanics and Geophysics for Geo-Energy and Geo-Resources
ISSN (print)2363-8419
ISSN (online)2363-8427

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