How to format your references using the Geomechanics and Geophysics for Geo-Energy and Geo-Resources citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geomechanics and Geophysics for Geo-Energy and Geo-Resources. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ammann AJ (2013) US clinical-research system in need of review. Nature 498:7
A journal article with 2 authors
Gerst A, Savage MK (2004) Seismic anisotropy beneath Ruapehu volcano: a possible eruption forecasting tool. Science 306:1543–1547
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaul M, Garden GA, Lipton SA (2001) Pathways to neuronal injury and apoptosis in HIV-associated dementia. Nature 410:988–994
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Sandler N, Kassamakov I, Ehlers H, et al (2014) Rapid interferometric imaging of printed drug laden multilayer structures. Sci Rep 4:4020

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety (1995) Guidelines for Process Safety Documentation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Nadaf A (2016) Scented rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars of India: A Perspective on Quality and Diversity, 1st ed. 2016. Springer India, New Delhi
A chapter in an edited book
Okitsu K (2011) Sonochemical Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles. In: Ashokkumar M (ed) Theoretical and Experimental Sonochemistry Involving Inorganic Systems. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 131–150

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geomechanics and Geophysics for Geo-Energy and Geo-Resources.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) What Is Normal Vaginal Discharge And What’s Not? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1972) Lack of Effective Coordinated or Centralized Management Control of Closed-Circuit Television Used in DOD for Training and Education. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Katsky CS (2015) Open Secrets: Congressional Oversight of the CIA in the Early Cold War. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2012) A Light in Captivity, and a Subject for Writing. New York Times B11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ammann 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Gerst and Savage 2004; Ammann 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gerst and Savage 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Sandler et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeomechanics and Geophysics for Geo-Energy and Geo-Resources
ISSN (print)2363-8419
ISSN (online)2363-8427

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