How to format your references using the Geomechanics and Geophysics for Geo-Energy and Geo-Resources citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geomechanics and Geophysics for Geo-Energy and Geo-Resources. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P (2005) A global view. Nature 435:997
A journal article with 2 authors
González J, Petrov D (2009) Genetics. MITEs--the ultimate parasites. Science 325:1352–1353
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen A, Wang S, Pacala SW (2012) Comment on “Global correlations in tropical tree species richness and abundance reject neutrality.” Science 336:1639; author reply 1639
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zhao Z-G, Zhang J, Yuan Y, et al (2013) In-situ formation of cobalt-phosphate oxygen-evolving complex-anchored reduced graphene oxide nanosheets for oxygen reduction reaction. Sci Rep 3:2263

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Simon MK, Lee D, Martin WL, et al (2005) Bandwidth-Efficient Digital Modulation with Application to Deep Space Communications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Sassa K, Canuti P, Yin Y (eds) (2014) Landslide Science for a Safer Geoenvironment: Vol.1: The International Programme on Landslides (IPL). Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Farooq U, Marrakchi Z, Mehrez H (2012) Heterogeneous Architectures Exploration Environments. In: Marrakchi Z, Mehrez H (eds) Tree-based Heterogeneous FPGA Architectures: Application Specific Exploration and Optimization. Springer, New York, NY, pp 85–122

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geomechanics and Geophysics for Geo-Energy and Geo-Resources.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) E-Cigarette Vapor Shown To Repress Immune System. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1967) Comments on Legality of NASA Contracts. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wang X (2017) Inferences on Gamma Distributions: Uncensored and Censored Cases. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson M (2017) Diary Hints at Slaves’ Remains on a Lot in Brooklyn. New York Times A15

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2005; González and Petrov 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (González and Petrov 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhao et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeomechanics and Geophysics for Geo-Energy and Geo-Resources
ISSN (print)2363-8419
ISSN (online)2363-8427

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