How to format your references using the Geomechanics and Geophysics for Geo-Energy and Geo-Resources citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geomechanics and Geophysics for Geo-Energy and Geo-Resources. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dickinson DK (2011) Teachers’ language practices and academic outcomes of preschool children. Science 333:964–967
A journal article with 2 authors
Harper KC, Sigman MS (2011) Three-dimensional correlation of steric and electronic free energy relationships guides asymmetric propargylation. Science 333:1875–1878
A journal article with 3 authors
Gagneux P, Moore JJ, Varki A (2005) The ethics of research on great apes. Nature 437:27–29
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Li X, Guo H, Yang Y, et al (2014) A designed peptide targeting CXCR4 displays anti-acute myelocytic leukemia activity in vitro and in vivo. Sci Rep 4:6610

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pouly M, Kohlas J (2011) Generic Inference. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Li D, Zhao C (eds) (2009) Computer and Computing Technologies in Agriculture II, Volume 2: The Second IFIP International Conference on Computer and Computing Technologies in Agriculture (CCTA2008), October 18-20, 2008, Beijing, China. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Fernández DM, Hughes S (2013) Competences and Foreign Language Teacher Education in Spain. In: Pérez Cañado ML (ed) Competency-based Language Teaching in Higher Education. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 63–75

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geomechanics and Geophysics for Geo-Energy and Geo-Resources.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Meet The Healthy, Functioning Man Who Survived With Almost No Brain. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) Transportation Security Information Sharing: Stakeholder Satisfaction Varies; TSA Could Take Additional Actions to Strengthen Efforts. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Markarian LA (2010) Strengths, challenges, and quality of life of ALS caregivers. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon MR (2017) U.S. Military Says It Shot Down Drone That Attacked American Allies in Syria. New York Times A10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dickinson 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Dickinson 2011; Harper and Sigman 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Harper and Sigman 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeomechanics and Geophysics for Geo-Energy and Geo-Resources
ISSN (print)2363-8419
ISSN (online)2363-8427

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