How to format your references using the Geomechanics and Geophysics for Geo-Energy and Geo-Resources citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geomechanics and Geophysics for Geo-Energy and Geo-Resources. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clarke T (2003) Infection risk puts the brakes on Canada’s biomedical research. Nature 422:652
A journal article with 2 authors
Lacroix B, Citovsky V (2013) Characterization of VIP1 activity as a transcriptional regulator in vitro and in planta. Sci Rep 3:2440
A journal article with 3 authors
Balachandran S, Thomas E, Barber GN (2004) A FADD-dependent innate immune mechanism in mammalian cells. Nature 432:401–405
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zimmerman SC, Wendland MS, Rakow NA, et al (2002) Synthetic hosts by monomolecular imprinting inside dendrimers. Nature 418:399–403

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Overhauser A (2010) Anomalous Effects in Simple Metals. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Escher J, Schrohe E, Seiler J, Walker C (eds) (2015) Elliptic and Parabolic Equations: Hannover, September 2013. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Mooney RJ (2008) Learning Language from Its Perceptual Context. In: Daelemans W, Goethals B, Morik K (eds) Machine Learning and Knowledge Discovery in Databases: European Conference, ECML PKDD 2008, Antwerp, Belgium, September 15-19, 2008, Proceedings, Part I. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 5–5

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geomechanics and Geophysics for Geo-Energy and Geo-Resources.

Blog post
Andrews R (2017) The UAE Wants To Build A City On Mars By 2117. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) Air Traffic Control: Justifications for Capital Investments Need Strengthening. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Holvick-Norton T (2015) Becoming Whole: The Process of Individuation for Women and Their Bodies. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hager EB, Mazzetti M (2015) Emirates Secretly Sends Colombian Mercenaries to Yemen Fight. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Clarke 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Clarke 2003; Lacroix and Citovsky 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lacroix and Citovsky 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Zimmerman et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeomechanics and Geophysics for Geo-Energy and Geo-Resources
ISSN (print)2363-8419
ISSN (online)2363-8427

Other styles