How to format your references using the Geomechanics and Geophysics for Geo-Energy and Geo-Resources citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geomechanics and Geophysics for Geo-Energy and Geo-Resources. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lifschitz V (2011) John McCarthy (1927-2011). Nature 480:40
A journal article with 2 authors
Yagi M, Oikawa S (2014) Ontogenetic phase shifts in metabolism in a flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Sci Rep 4:7135
A journal article with 3 authors
Wörsdörfer B, Woycechowsky KJ, Hilvert D (2011) Directed evolution of a protein container. Science 331:589–592
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Cebe P, Hu X, Kaplan DL, et al (2013) Beating the heat--fast scanning melts silk beta sheet crystals. Sci Rep 3:1130

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harrington PJ (2010) Pharmaceutical Process Chemistry for Synthesis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Giersig M, Khomutov GB (eds) (2008) Nanomaterials for Application in Medicine and Biology. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Holmes FL (2009) Experimental Systems, Investigative Pathways, and the Nature of Discovery. In: Meheus J, Nickles T (eds) Models of Discovery and Creativity. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 65–79

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geomechanics and Geophysics for Geo-Energy and Geo-Resources.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) What Does Pi Sound Like? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) High Risk Series: Guaranteed Student Loans. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dale B (2012) Changing how we change: A case study of Escondido Union School District. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Parker A, Sanger DE (2016) Trump Eggs on Moscow in Hack of Clinton Email. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lifschitz 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Lifschitz 2011; Yagi and Oikawa 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yagi and Oikawa 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Cebe et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeomechanics and Geophysics for Geo-Energy and Geo-Resources
ISSN (print)2363-8419
ISSN (online)2363-8427

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