How to format your references using the Foundations of Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Foundations of Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Benenson, Y. (2013). Engineering. Recombinatorial logic. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6132), 554–555.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ford, R., & Spafford, E. H. (2007). Computer science. Happy birthday, dear viruses. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5835), 210–211.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huynh, W. U., Dittmer, J. J., & Alivisatos, A. P. (2002). Hybrid nanorod-polymer solar cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5564), 2425–2427.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ferrari de Andrade, L., Tay, R. E., Pan, D., Luoma, A. M., Ito, Y., Badrinath, S., et al. (2018). Antibody-mediated inhibition of MICA and MICB shedding promotes NK cell-driven tumor immunity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 359(6383), 1537–1542.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cantrell, R. S., & Cosner, C. (2004). Spatial Ecology via Reaction-Diffusion Equations. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Indulska, J., & Raymond, K. (Eds.). (2007). Distributed Applications and Interoperable Systems: 7th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference, DAIS 2007, Paphos, Cyprus, June 6-8, 2007. Proceedings (Vol. 4531). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Curry, G. L., & Feldman, R. M. (2009). Processing Time Variability. In R. M. Feldman (Ed.), Manufacturing Systems Modeling and Analysis (pp. 109–123). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Foundations of Science.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, May 16). Interactive Maps Show The Devastating Effects Of Dropping Nuclear Bombs. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2004). Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Airport and Airway Trust Fund Excise Taxes (No. GAO-05-29R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chotkevys, D. L. (2009). A grounded theory study to explore how nurses overcome barriers to spiritual care (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. (2017, August 2). Concert Venues Split From Bowery Presents. New York Times, p. C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Benenson 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Benenson 2013; Ford and Spafford 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ford and Spafford 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Ferrari de Andrade et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleFoundations of Science
AbbreviationFound. Sci.
ISSN (print)1233-1821
ISSN (online)1572-8471
History and Philosophy of Science

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