How to format your references using the The Veterinary Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Veterinary Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Canup, R.M., 2010. Origin of Saturn’s rings and inner moons by mass removal from a lost Titan-sized satellite. Nature 468, 943–946.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dawkins, M.S., Woodington, A., 2000. Pattern recognition and active vision in chickens. Nature 403, 652–655.
A journal article with 3 authors
Turalska, M., West, B.J., Grigolini, P., 2013. Role of committed minorities in times of crisis. Sci. Rep. 3, 1371.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
He, Y., Ye, T., Su, M., Zhang, C., Ribbe, A.E., Jiang, W., Mao, C., 2008. Hierarchical self-assembly of DNA into symmetric supramolecular polyhedra. Nature 452, 198–201.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prazeres, D.M.F., 2011. Plasmid Biopharmaceuticals. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Tang, W.H., 2011. Condition Monitoring and Assessment of Power Transformers Using Computational Intelligence, Power Systems. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang, Y., Koch, C.C., Ma, S.G., Zhang, H., Pan, Y., 2016. Fabrication Routes, in: Gao, M.C., Yeh, J.-W., Liaw, P.K., Zhang, Y. (Eds.), High-Entropy Alloys: Fundamentals and Applications. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 151–179.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Veterinary Journal.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Modified Red Blood Cells As Cargo Ships [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1971. Federal Procurement of ADP Systems (No. B-115369). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Harris, A.N., 2017. Deadly force: Perceptions of police and exploration of strategies used by African American mothers to protect their sons (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K., 2006. No Sawdust, But a Real Pit. New York Times NJ6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Canup, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Canup, 2010; Dawkins and Woodington, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dawkins and Woodington, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (He et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Veterinary Journal
AbbreviationVet. J.
ISSN (print)1090-0233
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Veterinary

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