How to format your references using the The Veterinary Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Veterinary Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Postle, K., 2002. Close before opening. Science 295, 1658–1659.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen, Z.-H., Schaap, P., 2012. The prokaryote messenger c-di-GMP triggers stalk cell differentiation in Dictyostelium. Nature 488, 680–683.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jockers, M.L., Sag, M., Schultz, J., 2012. Digital archives: Don’t let copyright block data mining. Nature 490, 29–30.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chanelière, T., Matsukevich, D.N., Jenkins, S.D., Lan, S.-Y., Kennedy, T.A.B., Kuzmich, A., 2005. Storage and retrieval of single photons transmitted between remote quantum memories. Nature 438, 833–836.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rao, C.L., Narayanamurthy, V., Simha, K.R.Y., 2016. Applied Impact Mechanics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Balcar, E., 2009. Introduction to the Graphical Theory of Angular Momentum: Case Studies, Springer Tracts in Modern Physics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Zheng, R., Xi, G., Chen, J., 2009. Contribution Degree’s Application in the Research of Elements of TCM Syndromes, in: Huang, D.-S., Jo, K.-H., Lee, H.-H., Kang, H.-J., Bevilacqua, V. (Eds.), Emerging Intelligent Computing Technology and Applications: 5th International Conference on Intelligent Computing, ICIC 2009, Ulsan, South Korea, September 16-19, 2009. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 28–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Veterinary Journal.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Official Healthy Food Guide Hasn’t Changed In 20 Years: Five Things That Need Updating [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1975. Need for More Effective Controls Over Computerized Payroll-Processing Operations (No. FGMSD-76-3). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Caltrider, C.S., 2017. Critical Pedagogy Unit of Ceramics Instruction: Fostering Civic Engagement in California High School Students (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Feeney, K., 2009. Croissants and Buttery Bliss. New York Times NJ12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Postle, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Chen and Schaap, 2012; Postle, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chen and Schaap, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Chanelière et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Veterinary Journal
AbbreviationVet. J.
ISSN (print)1090-0233
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Veterinary

Other styles