How to format your references using the The Veterinary Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Veterinary Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lehmann, F.O., 2001. Matching spiracle opening to metabolic need during flight in Drosophila. Science 294, 1926–1929.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schlesinger, W.H., Lichter, J., 2001. Limited carbon storage in soil and litter of experimental forest plots under increased atmospheric CO2. Nature 411, 466–469.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ninomiya, H., Elinson, R.P., Winklbauer, R., 2004. Antero-posterior tissue polarity links mesoderm convergent extension to axial patterning. Nature 430, 364–367.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yusa, K., Horie, K., Kondoh, G., Kouno, M., Maeda, Y., Kinoshita, T., Takeda, J., 2004. Genome-wide phenotype analysis in ES cells by regulated disruption of Bloom’s syndrome gene. Nature 429, 896–899.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Beiser, L., 2005. Unified Optical Scanning Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Jankowski, R., 2015. Earthquake-Induced Structural Pounding, GeoPlanet: Earth and Planetary Sciences. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Heitzer, M., Eckert, A., Fuhrmann, M., Griesbeck, C., 2007. Influence of Codon Bias on the Expression of Foreign Genes in Microalgae, in: León, R., Galván, A., Fernández, E. (Eds.), Transgenic Microalgae as Green Cell Factories, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 46–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Veterinary Journal.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. Paralyzed Monkeys Walk Again Thanks To Brain Implant [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2004. Information Technology Investment Management: A Framework for Assessing and Improving Process Maturity (Supersedes AIMD-10.1.23) (No. GAO-04-394G). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodriguez, R.M., 2017. Experimental Evaluation of Cooling Effectiveness and Water Conservation in a Poultry House Using Flow Blurring Atomizers (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Savodnik, P., 2012. ‘Their First Lenny Bruce Could Be Coming.’ New York Times MM34.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schulz, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Asplund, 2005; Yamanaka, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schlesinger and Lichter, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Treusch et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Veterinary Journal
AbbreviationVet. J.
ISSN (print)1090-0233
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Veterinary

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