How to format your references using the The Veterinary Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Veterinary Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
de Jong, G., 2005. Evolution. Is invariance across animal species just an illusion? Science 309, 1193–1195.
A journal article with 2 authors
Insel, T.R., Landis, S., 2014. Allison Doupe (1954-2014). Nature 515, 344.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jansen, V.A.A., Mashanova, A., Petrovskii, S., 2012. Comment on “Lévy walks evolve through interaction between movement and environmental complexity.” Science 335, 918; author reply 918.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hao, Q., Du, D., Wang, C., Li, W., Huang, H., Li, J., Qiu, T., Chu, P.K., 2014. Plasmon-induced broadband fluorescence enhancement on Al-Ag bimetallic substrates. Sci. Rep. 4, 6014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Olsen, D., 2015. The Lean Product Playbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
White, R.E., Cooper, K. (Eds.), 2011. Principals in Succession: Transfer and Rotation in Educational Administration, Studies in Educational Leadership. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Tonso, K.L., 2016. Enacting Practices, in: Jørgensen, U., Brodersen, S. (Eds.), Engineering Professionalism: Engineering Practices in Work and Education. SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp. 85–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Veterinary Journal.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2016. How A Fungus Could Recycle Your Smartphone [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988. ADP Modernization: IRS’ Progress on the Electronic Filing System (No. IMTEC-88-40). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
George, K.A., 2014. Housing adequacy and civic engagement in Los Angeles County (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Larkin, E., 2017. Trust and Trauma. New York Times BR18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (de Jong, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (de Jong, 2005; Insel and Landis, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Insel and Landis, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Hao et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Veterinary Journal
AbbreviationVet. J.
ISSN (print)1090-0233
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Veterinary

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