How to format your references using the The Veterinary Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Veterinary Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bar-Peled, L., 2014. Science & SciLifeLab Prize Essay. Size does matter. Science 346, 1191–1192.
A journal article with 2 authors
Inamdar, A.A., Bennett, J.W., 2014. A common fungal volatile organic compound induces a nitric oxide mediated inflammatory response in Drosophila melanogaster. Sci. Rep. 4, 3833.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hibbett, D.S., Gilbert, L.B., Donoghue, M.J., 2000. Evolutionary instability of ectomycorrhizal symbioses in basidiomycetes. Nature 407, 506–508.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Xu, W., Ding, G., Yokawa, K., Baluška, F., Li, Q.-F., Liu, Y., Shi, W., Liang, J., Zhang, J., 2013. An improved agar-plate method for studying root growth and response of Arabidopsis thaliana. Sci. Rep. 3, 1273.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Raju, K.S.N., 2011. Fluid Mechanics, Heat Transfer, and Mass Transfer. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Schmauder, S., 2009. Micromechanics and Nanosimulation of Metals and Composites: Advanced Methods and Theoretical Concepts. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Ainbinder, D., Godin, B., Touitou, E., 2016. Ethosomes: Enhanced Delivery of Drugs to and Across the Skin, in: Dragicevic, N., Maibach, H.I. (Eds.), Percutaneous Penetration Enhancers Chemical Methods in Penetration Enhancement: Nanocarriers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 61–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Veterinary Journal.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. How Realistic Is It To Ask Someone To “Cry A River”? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1980. Public Issues Pertaining to Science and Technology (No. B-199444). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schaff, S., 2013. What characterizes and impacts student transformational learning in a community college work placement context (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C., 2016. Scent Notes: The Citrus Aroma of the Season. New York Times ST3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bar-Peled, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Bar-Peled, 2014; Inamdar and Bennett, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Inamdar and Bennett, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Xu et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Veterinary Journal
AbbreviationVet. J.
ISSN (print)1090-0233
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Veterinary

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