How to format your references using the The Veterinary Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Veterinary Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hochstrasser, M., 2009. Origin and function of ubiquitin-like proteins. Nature 458, 422–429.
A journal article with 2 authors
Quellmalz, E.S., Pellegrino, J.W., 2009. Technology and testing. Science 323, 75–79.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ogata, S., Li, J., Yip, S., 2002. Ideal pure shear strength of aluminum and copper. Science 298, 807–811.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ahluwalia, J., Tinker, A., Clapp, L.H., Duchen, M.R., Abramov, A.Y., Pope, S., Nobles, M., Segal, A.W., 2004. The large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel is essential for innate immunity. Nature 427, 853–858.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blair, T.H., 2016. Energy Production Systems Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Dosch, W., Lee, R.Y., Wu, C. (Eds.), 2006. Software Engineering Research and Applications: Second International Conference, SERA 2004, Los Angeles, CA, USA, MAY 5-7, 2004, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Hishida, N., Shaw, R., 2014. Social Capital in Disaster Recovery in Japan: An Overview, in: Shaw, R. (Ed.), Community Practices for Disaster Risk Reduction in Japan, Disaster Risk Reduction. Springer Japan, Tokyo, pp. 51–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Veterinary Journal.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. Ancient Arctic DNA Suggests That Dogs And Wolves Split 40,000 Years Ago [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. Air Traffic Control: Status of FAA’s Modernization Program (No. RCED-93-121FS). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Herrera, E.C., 2010. Emancipating youth from foster care: A content analysis of existing literature (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2005. For New Court, Abortion Case Takes Old Path. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hochstrasser, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Hochstrasser, 2009; Quellmalz and Pellegrino, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Quellmalz and Pellegrino, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Ahluwalia et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Veterinary Journal
AbbreviationVet. J.
ISSN (print)1090-0233
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Veterinary

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