How to format your references using the Forest Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forest Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spudis, P. D. 2001. Planetary science. What is the Moon made of? Science. 293(5536):1779–1781.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tomasello, M., and J. Call. 2011. Methodological challenges in the study of primate cognition. Science. 334(6060):1227–1228.
A journal article with 3 authors
O’Riordan, M., M. A. Moors, and D. A. Portnoy. 2003. Listeria intracellular growth and virulence require host-derived lipoic acid. Science. 302(5644):462–464.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Yang, C.-H., P. Belawat, E. Hafen, L. Y. Jan, and Y.-N. Jan. 2008. Drosophila egg-laying site selection as a system to study simple decision-making processes. Science. 319(5870):1679–1683.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Costa, P. J. 2017. Applied Mathematics for the Analysis of Biomedical Data. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Kovalev, M. 2014. A Pipelined Multi-core MIPS Machine: Hardware Implementation and Correctness Proof. Müller, S.M., and W.J. Paul (eds.) Springer International Publishing, Cham. XII, 352 p. 147 illus p.
A chapter in an edited book
Xin, X., and Y. Liu. 2014. Pendubot. P. 95–107 in Control Design and Analysis for Underactuated Robotic Systems, Liu, Y. (ed.). Springer, London.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forest Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. What Is KPC And Should I Be Worried About These Superbugs? IFLScience. Available online at:; last accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. Proactive Management of FAA’s Security Program Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhao, J. 2012. Contextual Differential Item Functioning: Examining the Validity of Teaching Self-Efficacy Instruments Using Hierarchical Generalized Linear Modeling. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E. 1995. The Life and Times Of a Young Rock Band. New York Times. :131.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Spudis 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Spudis 2001; Tomasello and Call 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tomasello and Call 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Yang et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleForest Science
AbbreviationFor. Sci.
ISSN (print)0015-749X
Ecological Modelling

Other styles