How to format your references using the Forest Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forest Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ivell, R. 2002. Endocrinology. This hormone has been relaxin’ too long! Science. 295(5555):637–638.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cisek, P., and J. F. Kalaska. 2004. Neural correlates of mental rehearsal in dorsal premotor cortex. Nature. 431(7011):993–996.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hopkins, M., T. M. Harrison, and C. E. Manning. 2008. Low heat flow inferred from >4 Gyr zircons suggests Hadean plate boundary interactions. Nature. 456(7221):493–496.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Root, T. L., J. T. Price, K. R. Hall, S. H. Schneider, C. Rosenzweig, and J. A. Pounds. 2003. Fingerprints of global warming on wild animals and plants. Nature. 421(6918):57–60.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cahill, T. H. 2012. Low Impact Development and Sustainable Stormwater Management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Agrawal, A., and G. Britz, eds. 2015. Comprehensive Guide to Neurosurgical Conditions. Springer International Publishing, Cham. X, 187 p. 38 illus., 28 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
Gaspar, M. B., and L. M. Chícharo. 2007. Modifying Dredges to Reduce By-catch and Impacts on the Benthos. P. 95–140 in By-catch Reduction in the World’s Fisheries, Reviews: Methods and Technologies in Fish Biology and Fisheries. Kennelly, S.J. (ed.). Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forest Science.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2015. Genetic Tweak Could Make All Mosquitoes Harmless Males. IFLScience. Available online at:; last accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. Air Pollution: EPA’s Efforts to Control Gasoline Vapors From Motor Vehicles. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kostenbader, T. C. 2015. Analyzing students’ attitudes towards science during inquiry-based lessons. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S. 2000. Unspectacular, but Advancing. New York Times. :D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ivell 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Ivell 2002; Cisek and Kalaska 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cisek and Kalaska 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Root et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleForest Science
AbbreviationFor. Sci.
ISSN (print)0015-749X
Ecological Modelling

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