How to format your references using the Forest Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forest Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Quinlan, R. A. 2015. DRUG DISCOVERY. A new dawn for cataracts. Science. 350(6261):636–637.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hayden, L. A., and E. B. Watson. 2007. A diffusion mechanism for core-mantle interaction. Nature. 450(7170):709–711.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ekström, G., M. Nettles, and G. A. Abers. 2003. Glacial earthquakes. Science. 302(5645):622–624.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Yun, H., I.-M. Lee, S.-Y. Lee, K.-Y. Kim, and B. Lee. 2014. Intermediate plasmonic characteristics in a quasi-continuous metallic monolayer. Sci. Rep. 4:3696.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kovalenko, N. P., Y. P. Krasny, and U. Krey. 2005. Physics of Amorphous Metals. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Roco, M. C. 2011. Nanotechnology Research Directions for Societal Needs in 2020: Retrospective and Outlook. Hersam, M.C., and C.A. Mirkin (eds.) Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht. XLI, 690 p. 214 illus., 190 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
Passeron, T., and J.-P. Ortonne. 2010. Generalized Vitiligo. P. 35–39 in Vitiligo, Picardo, M., and A. Taïeb (eds.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forest Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. What Do The Bacteria Living In Your Gut Have To Do With Your Immune System? IFLScience. Available online at:; last accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. Management Agenda for the Presidential and Congressional Transition: Improve Federal Performance to Better Achieve Results. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
De Felice, D. 2013. A Phenomenological Study of Teaching Endangered Languages Online: Perspectives from Nahua and Mayan Educators. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. 2002. World Briefing | Europe: Belarus: New Law Restricts Religions. New York Times. :A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Quinlan 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Hayden and Watson 2007; Quinlan 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hayden and Watson 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Yun et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleForest Science
AbbreviationFor. Sci.
ISSN (print)0015-749X
Ecological Modelling

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