How to format your references using the Array citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Array. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Leonhardt U. Optical conformal mapping. Science 2006;312:1777–80.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hubbard J, Shaw JH. Uplift of the Longmen Shan and Tibetan plateau, and the 2008 Wenchuan (M = 7.9) earthquake. Nature 2009;458:194–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kilb D, Gomberg J, Bodin P. Triggering of earthquake aftershocks by dynamic stresses. Nature 2000;408:570–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gurnett DA, Zarka P, Manning R, Kurth WS, Hospodarsky GB, Averkamp TF, et al. Non-detection at Venus of high-frequency radio signals characteristic of terrestrial lightning. Nature 2001;409:313–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ansorge R. Mathematical Models of Fluiddynamics. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
Tiwari R, Lommerse M, Smith D, editors. M2 Models and Methodologies for Community Engagement. Singapore: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Escobar O. Suspending Disbelief. In: Engelken-Jorge M, Güell PI, del Río CM, editors. Politics and Emotions: The Obama Phenomenon, Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften; 2011, p. 109–28.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Array.

Blog post
Andrew E. Amazing Vine of Aurora Borealis As Seen By ISS. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2020 Census: Prioritized Information Technology Research and Testing Is Needed for Census Design Decisions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith B. Analysis of hydraulic and financial operations of a recycled water system: A case study of the Orange County water district’s green acres project. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Court Sets Fall Debate On Standards Of Water Act. New York Times 2008:A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleArray
ISSN (print)2590-0056

Other styles