How to format your references using the Array citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Array. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Erwin D. A call to the custodians of deep time. Nature 2009;462:282–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Poulsen H, Nissen P. Structural biology. The inner workings of a dynamic duo. Science 2012;335:416–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cho Y, Lee JB, Hong J. Controlled release of an anti-cancer drug from DNA structured nano-films. Sci Rep 2014;4:4078.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tang G, Minemoto Y, Dibling B, Purcell NH, Li Z, Karin M, et al. Inhibition of JNK activation through NF-kappaB target genes. Nature 2001;414:313–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Garduno Barrera D, Diaz M. Communicating Systems with UML 2. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2011.
An edited book
Ramnath S, Dathan B, editors. Object-Oriented Analysis and Design. London: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Basketter DA, McFadden JP. Cutaneous Allergies. In: Dietert RR, Luebke RW, editors. Immunotoxicity, Immune Dysfunction, and Chronic Disease, Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2012, p. 103–26.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Array.

Blog post
Andrews R. These US Military Drones Can Swarm Together Using A Hive Mind. IFLScience 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FTS2001: Improving the Revenue Estimation Process. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cuthbertson TH. The fool’s replies: Toward a poetics of folly in Shakespeare’s comedies. Doctoral dissertation. Indiana University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Antilla S. Fighting the Old Boys’ Club. New York Times 2014:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleArray
ISSN (print)2590-0056

Other styles