How to format your references using the Array citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Array. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adam D. Cambridge-MIT Institute probed. Nature 2002;420:256.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kleinteich T, Gorb SN. Tongue adhesion in the horned frog Ceratophrys sp. Sci Rep 2014;4:5225.
A journal article with 3 authors
Insel TR, Landis SC, Collins FS. Research priorities. The NIH BRAIN Initiative. Science 2013;340:687–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhou R, Huang X, Margulis CJ, Berne BJ. Hydrophobic collapse in multidomain protein folding. Science 2004;305:1605–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chu PP. Embedded SoPC Design with Nios II Processor and VHDL Examples. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Dal Fabbro PA. Linear CMOS RF Power Amplifiers for Wireless Applications: Efficiency Enhancement and Frequency-Tunable Capability. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Abidi N, Klawonn F, Thumfart JO. Time Point Estimation of a Single Sample from High Throughput Experiments Based on Time-Resolved Data and Robust Correlation Measures. In: Tucker A, Höppner F, Siebes A, Swift S, editors. Advances in Intelligent Data Analysis XII: 12th International Symposium, IDA 2013, London, UK, October 17-19, 2013. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013, p. 32–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Array.

Blog post
Andrew E. Scientists Implant False Memories Into Sleeping Mice. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Stafford Student Loan Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pope C. Words in the Garden. Doctoral dissertation. Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Romero S, Bosman J. As Waters Took Mother, a Child Held on to Life. New York Times 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleArray
ISSN (print)2590-0056

Other styles