How to format your references using the Array citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Array. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Palumbi SR. Humans as the world’s greatest evolutionary force. Science 2001;293:1786–90.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weiss R, Bourgeois J. Geology. Understanding sediments--reducing tsunami risk. Science 2012;336:1117–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Laporte SA, Oakley RH, Caron MG. Signal transduction. Bringing channels closer to the action! Science 2001;293:62–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Rothschild D, Weissbrod O, Barkan E, Kurilshikov A, Korem T, Zeevi D, et al. Environment dominates over host genetics in shaping human gut microbiota. Nature 2018;555:210–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Meghouar H. Corporate Takeover Targets. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Jadvar H. Clinical PET and PET/CT. London: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Bhattacharjee R, Gedil M, Sartie A, Otoo E, Dumet D, Kikuno H, et al. Dioscorea. In: Kole C, editor. Wild Crop Relatives: Genomic and Breeding Resources: Industrial Crops, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011, p. 71–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Array.

Blog post
Andrews R. Short Bursts Of Exercise Just As Effective As Endurance Training, Claims Study. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Commercial Practices: Opportunities Exist to Enhance DOD’s Sales of Surplus Aircraft Parts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mathus MA. The Relationship between Teacher Evaluation Ratings and Student Achievement in a Rural, Midwest School District. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. Anger and Indifference After a School Ends a Full-Contact Tradition. New York Times 2013:D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleArray
ISSN (print)2590-0056

Other styles