How to format your references using the Cultural Trends citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cultural Trends. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Asphaug, E. (2004). Planetary science. Nothing simple about asteroids. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5701), 1489–1492.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bininda-Emonds, O. R. P., & Purvis, A. (2012). Comment on “Impacts of the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution and KPg extinction on mammal diversification.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 337(6090), 34; author reply 34.
A journal article with 3 authors
Basch, M. L., Bronner-Fraser, M., & García-Castro, M. I. (2006). Specification of the neural crest occurs during gastrulation and requires Pax7. Nature, 441(7090), 218–222.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lunde, C., Jensen, P. E., Haldrup, A., Knoetzel, J., & Scheller, H. V. (2000). The PSI-H subunit of photosystem I is essential for state transitions in plant photosynthesis. Nature, 408(6812), 613–615.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Held, G. (2005). Virtual Private Networking. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Young, G., Nicholson, K., & Kane, A. W. (Eds.). (2006). Psychological Knowledge in Court: PTSD, Pain, and TBI. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Capano, G., Regini, M., & Turri, M. (2016). Autonomy and Funding: The Reforms of the Late 1980s to the Mid-1990s. In M. Regini & M. Turri (Eds.), Changing Governance in Universities: Italian Higher Education in Comparative Perspective (pp. 65–79). London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cultural Trends.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, March 26). Vegetarian Birds Turn Carnivorous. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1980). Review of the District of Columbia’s Automatic Data Processing Operations (No. GGD-80-103). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Torres-Partida, A. (2014). Bridging the gap between faith based leaders and mental health professionals (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2007, November 18). Cupcakes a Chicken Can Love. New York Times, p. NJ12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Asphaug, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Asphaug, 2004; Bininda-Emonds & Purvis, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bininda-Emonds & Purvis, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Basch, Bronner-Fraser, & García-Castro, 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Lunde, Jensen, Haldrup, Knoetzel, & Scheller, 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleCultural Trends
ISSN (print)0954-8963
ISSN (online)1469-3690
ScopeVisual Arts and Performing Arts
Cultural Studies

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