How to format your references using the Cultural Trends citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cultural Trends. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boyd, I. L. (2012). Ecology. The art of ecological modeling. Science (New York, N.Y.), 337(6092), 306–307.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hoffman, Y., & Pilpel, Y. (2015). Gene expression. MicroRNAs silence the noisy genome. Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6230), 41–42.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chakraborty, S., Yanchulova, P., & Thiemens, M. H. (2013). Mass-independent oxygen isotopic partitioning during gas-phase SiO2 formation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 342(6157), 463–466.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Augui, S., Filion, G. J., Huart, S., Nora, E., Guggiari, M., Maresca, M., Stewart, A. F., & Heard, E. (2007). Sensing X chromosome pairs before X inactivation via a novel X-pairing region of the Xic. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5856), 1632–1636.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sahalos, J. N. (2006). Orthogonal Methods for Array Synthesis. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Gentili, G. (2016). The Ulnar Nerve: Sensory and Motor Conduction Studies (M. Di Napoli, Ed.). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Kurtenbach, S., Mannheim, T., Hüsing, M., & Corves, B. (2014). Content and Realization of Education in Mechanism Theory at RWTH Aachen University. In J. C. García-Prada & C. Castejón (Eds.), New Trends in Educational Activity in the Field of Mechanism and Machine Theory (pp. 39–46). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cultural Trends.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, June 9). First Vine From Space Uploaded By NASA Astronaut. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2010). Aviation Security: Progress Made but Actions Needed to Address Challenges in Meeting the Air Cargo Screening Mandate (GAO-10-880T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Coggin, L. L. (2014). Creating discourses of possibility: Storying between the real and the imagined to negotiate rural lives in two elementary classrooms [Doctoral dissertation]. Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2003, March 2). For Homeless Families, A Tiring Trek to School. New York Times, 145.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Boyd, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Boyd, 2012; Hoffman & Pilpel, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hoffman & Pilpel, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Chakraborty et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Augui et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleCultural Trends
ISSN (print)0954-8963
ISSN (online)1469-3690
ScopeVisual Arts and Performing Arts
Cultural Studies

Other styles