How to format your references using the Cultural Trends citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cultural Trends. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fujita, T. (2006). Virology. Sensing viral RNA amid your own. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5801), 935–936.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dupuy, T. J., & Kraus, A. L. (2013). Distances, luminosities, and temperatures of the coldest known substellar objects. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6153), 1492–1495.
A journal article with 3 authors
Attri, A. K., Kumar, U., & Jain, V. K. (2001). Formation of ozone by fireworks. Nature, 411(6841), 1015.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Cuevas, C. A., Notario, A., Adame, J. A., Hilboll, A., Richter, A., Burrows, J. P., & Saiz-Lopez, A. (2014). Evolution of NO₂ levels in Spain from 1996 to 2012. Scientific Reports, 4, 5887.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Idelberger, K. (2011). The World of Footbridges. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Geertman, S., & Stillwell, J. (Eds.). (2009). Planning Support Systems Best Practice and New Methods (Vol. 95). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Nikookar, H., & Prasad, R. (2009). UWB Interference. In R. Prasad (Ed.), Introduction to Ultra Wideband for Wireless Communications (pp. 67–92). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cultural Trends.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017, May 30). Leading Space Entrepreneur Thinks Aliens Are Visiting Earth. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Amendment to FCC Rules Regarding a Plan for Cost-Sharing of Microwave Relocation (OGC-96-14). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen, A. (2017). Poetry as a Museum [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, K., & Hubbard, B. (2017, October 27). As Saudis Open Up, Investors Tiptoe In. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fujita, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Dupuy & Kraus, 2013; Fujita, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dupuy & Kraus, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Attri et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Cuevas et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCultural Trends
ISSN (print)0954-8963
ISSN (online)1469-3690
ScopeVisual Arts and Performing Arts
Cultural Studies

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