How to format your references using the Cultural Trends citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cultural Trends. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spence, K. (2000). Ancient Egyptian chronology and the astronomical orientation of pyramids. Nature, 408(6810), 320–324.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yandulov, D. V., & Schrock, R. R. (2003). Catalytic reduction of dinitrogen to ammonia at a single molybdenum center. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5629), 76–78.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaiser, T. E., Intine, R. V., & Dundr, M. (2008). De novo formation of a subnuclear body. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5908), 1713–1717.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Christensen, J., Romero-García, V., Picó, R., Cebrecos, A., de Abajo, F. J. G., Mortensen, N. A., Willatzen, M., & Sánchez-Morcillo, V. J. (2014). Extraordinary absorption of sound in porous lamella-crystals. Scientific Reports, 4, 4674.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Budisa, N. (2005). Engineering the Genetic Code. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Harisinghani, M. G. (2015). Genitourinary Imaging: A Case Based Approach (A. Rajesh, Ed.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Filiposka, S., Mishev, A., & Juiz, C. (2015). Opportunities and Challenges for Green HPC. In A. M. Bogdanova & D. Gjorgjevikj (Eds.), ICT Innovations 2014: World of Data (pp. 45–54). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cultural Trends.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2015, August 31). This Much Will Kill You. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). Airfield Pavements (RCED-97-50R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schaeffler, K. P. (2015). From Flag Officer to Corporate Leader: A Phenomenological Study of the Influence of Career Transition on Executive Leadership and Professional Identity [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2007, January 7). New Plan Approved for Kings Park Property. New York Times, LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Spence, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Spence, 2000; Yandulov & Schrock, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yandulov & Schrock, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Kaiser et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Christensen et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCultural Trends
ISSN (print)0954-8963
ISSN (online)1469-3690
ScopeVisual Arts and Performing Arts
Cultural Studies

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