How to format your references using the Cultural Trends citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cultural Trends. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lloyd, S. (2000). Ultimate physical limits to computation. Nature, 406(6799), 1047–1054.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ji, H., & Zweibel, E. (2015). Plasma physics. Understanding particle acceleration in astrophysical plasmas. Science (New York, N.Y.), 347(6225), 944–945.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, A., Dennis, C., & Campbell, P. (2007). Nature’s guide for mentors. Nature, 447(7146), 791–797.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kuehnbaum, N. L., Gillen, J. B., Gibala, M. J., & Britz-McKibbin, P. (2014). Personalized metabolomics for predicting glucose tolerance changes in sedentary women after high-intensity interval training. Scientific Reports, 4, 6166.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Corns, T. N. (2008). A History of Seventeenth-Century English Literature. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Herik, H. J. van D., Xu, X., Ma, Z., & Winands, M. H. M. (Eds.). (2008). Computers and Games: 6th International Conference, CG 2008, Beijing, China, September 29 - October 1, 2008. Proceedings (Vol. 5131). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Tveito, A., Langtangen, H. P., Nielsen, B. F., & Cai, X. (2010). The Method of Least Squares. In H. P. Langtangen, B. F. Nielsen, & X. Cai (Eds.), Elements of Scientific Computing (pp. 147–193). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cultural Trends.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2016, April 26). What Mongol History Predicts For The New Season Of Game of Thrones. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Business Systems Modernization: DOD Needs to Fully Define Policies and Procedures for Institutionally Managing Investments (GAO-07-538). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Olsen, C. M. (2009). A violinist in a non-classical world: Sugizo’s use of violin in popular music [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, L. (2017, August 15). On Spectrum of Extremism, Far Left Takes Relatively Little Space. New York Times, A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lloyd, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Ji & Zweibel, 2015; Lloyd, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ji & Zweibel, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Lee et al., 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kuehnbaum et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCultural Trends
ISSN (print)0954-8963
ISSN (online)1469-3690
ScopeVisual Arts and Performing Arts
Cultural Studies

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