How to format your references using the Cultural Trends citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cultural Trends. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hill, G. E. (2004). Ecology. A head start for some redstarts. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5705), 2201–2202.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hug, C., & Lodish, H. F. (2005). Medicine. Visfatin: a new adipokine. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5708), 366–367.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dubi, Y., Meir, Y., & Avishai, Y. (2007). Nature of the superconductor-insulator transition in disordered superconductors. Nature, 449(7164), 876–880.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Han, J., Yuan, P., Yang, H., Zhang, J., Soh, B. S., Li, P., Lim, S. L., Cao, S., Tay, J., Orlov, Y. L., Lufkin, T., Ng, H.-H., Tam, W.-L., & Lim, B. (2010). Tbx3 improves the germ-line competency of induced pluripotent stem cells. Nature, 463(7284), 1096–1100.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deroussi, L. (2016). Metaheuristics for Logistics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Emrouznejad, A., & Tavana, M. (Eds.). (2014). Performance Measurement with Fuzzy Data Envelopment Analysis (Vol. 309). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Yasmin, S., & Sourin, A. (2013). Image-Based Virtual Palpation. In M. L. Gavrilova, C. J. K. Tan, & A. Kuijper (Eds.), Transactions on Computational Science XVIII: Special Issue on Cyberworlds (pp. 61–80). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cultural Trends.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, November 29). How To Find Micrometeorites In Your Home. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1985). Survey of Small Businesses’ Reactions to Changes in the Costs of Telephone Service (RCED-85-106). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Necaise, K. W. (2012). Effects of soybean-derived phytoestrogens on reproductive tract development in neonatal male and female pigs: Animal model for the human infant [Doctoral dissertation]. Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman, J. (2017, September 6). Analyzing Ah-Choos: All Dogs in Favor Of the Motion, Sneeze. New York Times, D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hill, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Hill, 2004; Hug & Lodish, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hug & Lodish, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Dubi et al., 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Han et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleCultural Trends
ISSN (print)0954-8963
ISSN (online)1469-3690
ScopeVisual Arts and Performing Arts
Cultural Studies

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