How to format your references using the Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Gordon DM. Control without hierarchy. Nature. 2007;446:143.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Kouwenhoven LP, Venema LC. Heat flow through nanobridges. Nature. 2000;404:943–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Norris DJ, Efros AL, Erwin SC. Doped nanocrystals. Science. 2008;319:1776–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Todd JD, Rogers R, Li YG, Wexler M, Bond PL, Sun L, et al. Structural and regulatory genes required to make the gas dimethyl sulfide in bacteria. Science. 2007;315:666–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Paret D, Riesco R. RFID and Contactless Smart Card Applications. Chichester, West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
1. Nicolini G. Metodi di stima in presenza di errori non campionari. Marasini D, Montanari GE, Pratesi M, Ranalli MG, Rocco E, editors. Milano: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Fujiwara H, Iwama K, Sekiguchi Y. Average-Case Competitive Analyses for One-Way Trading. In: Hu X, Wang J, editors. Computing and Combinatorics: 14th Annual International Conference, COCOON 2008 Dalian, China, June 27-29, 2008 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 41–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. Information Before Regulation To Make Amateur Brain Stimulation Safer [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/brain/information-before-regulation-to-make-amateur-brain-stimulation-safer/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Readiness Improving, But Much Work Remains to Avoid Major Disruptions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Jan. Report No.: T-AIMD-99-50.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Tyler EP. Tectonic geomorphology of quaternary river terraces at Santa Cruz Creek, Santa Maria Basin, Santa Barbara County, California [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenhouse L. Even in Agreement, Scalia Puts Roberts to Lash. New York Times. 2007 Jun 28;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleForensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
AbbreviationForensic Sci. Med. Pathol.
ISSN (print)1547-769X
ISSN (online)1556-2891
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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