How to format your references using the Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Casti JL. Formally speaking. Nature. 2001;411:527.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Rickman C, Bickmore WA. Transcription. Flashing a light on the spatial organization of transcription. Science. 2013;341:621–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Gächter S, Renner E, Sefton M. The long-run benefits of punishment. Science. 2008;322:1510.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Strom JO, Ingberg E, Theodorsson E, Theodorsson A. Effects of high and low 17β-estradiol doses on focal cerebral ischemia: negative results. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3111.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Tardu S. Transport and Coherent Structures in Wall Turbulence. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1. Sen A, Das N, Das SK, Sinha BP, editors. Distributed Computing - IWDC 2004: 6th International Workshop, Kolkata, India, December 27-30, 2004. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Yin Y, Kaku I, Tang J, Zhu J. Neural Network and Self-organizing Maps. In: Kaku I, Tang J, Zhu J, editors. Data Mining: Concepts, Methods and Applications in Management and Engineering Design. London: Springer; 2011. p. 87–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Two New Islands Appear in the Red Sea After Volcanic Eruptions [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/environment/two-new-islands-appeared-red-sea-after-volcanic-eruptions/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Health, Education, Employment, and Income Security Reports. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Feb. Report No.: HEHS-94-96W.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Collins JD. Answers in diagenesis: Assessing mussel shell diagenesis in the modern vadose zone at Lyon’s Bluff (22OK520), northeast Mississippi [Doctoral dissertation]. [Mississippi State, MS]: Mississippi State University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Feeney K. QUICK BITE | Peapack; Chocolate And a Touch Of Chic. New York Times. 2006 Oct 15;14NJ11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleForensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
AbbreviationForensic Sci. Med. Pathol.
ISSN (print)1547-769X
ISSN (online)1556-2891
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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