How to format your references using the Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Nathan C. Immunology. Catalytic antibody bridges innate and adaptive immunity. Science. 2002;298:2143–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Scholes MC, Scholes RJ. Ecology. Dust unto dust. Science. 2013;342:565–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Hines PJ, Wible B, McCartney M. Science, language, and literacy. Learning to read, reading to learn. Introduction. Science. 2010;328:447.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Shi T, Lv W, Zhang L, Chen J, Chen H. Association of HLA-DR4/HLA-DRB1*04 with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6887.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Howe TR. Marriages & Families in the 21st Century. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
1. Garvis S, Pendergast D, editors. Asia-Pacific Perspectives on Teacher Self-Efficacy. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Balsa-Canto E, Banga JR. Computational Procedures for Model Identification. In: Choi S, editor. Systems Biology for Signaling Networks. New York, NY: Springer; 2010. p. 111–37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. New Dog Robot Can Run and Climb Just Like The Real Thing. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Second-Year Implementation of the Federal Managers’ Financial Integrity Act in the Department of Education. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1985 Sep. Report No.: HRD-85-78.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Pan Y. Long-Term Effects of Higher-Quality Early Childhood Education for At-Risk Children on Their Later Development and Resilience [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Gorman J. Buzzed: Sweets Raise Hopes Among Bees. New York Times. 2016 Sep 30;D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleForensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
AbbreviationForensic Sci. Med. Pathol.
ISSN (print)1547-769X
ISSN (online)1556-2891
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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