How to format your references using the Reliability Engineering and System Safety citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Reliability Engineering and System Safety. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hansson GK. Medicine. LIGHT hits the liver. Science 2007;316:206–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Duchek P, Rørth P. Guidance of cell migration by EGF receptor signaling during Drosophila oogenesis. Science 2001;291:131–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Taylor PD, Day T, Wild G. Evolution of cooperation in a finite homogeneous graph. Nature 2007;447:469–72.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Thibert C, Teillet M-A, Lapointe F, Mazelin L, Le Douarin NM, Mehlen P. Inhibition of neuroepithelial patched-induced apoptosis by sonic hedgehog. Science 2003;301:843–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hayward A, Weare F. Steel Detailers’ Manual. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Blaschke D, Sedrakian D, editors. Superdense QCD Matter and Compact Stars. vol. 197. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Ghatak KP, Bhattacharya S. The DSL for Ultra-Thin Films of III–V, Ternary and Quaternary Semiconductors Under External Photo-Excitation. In: Bhattacharya S, editor. Debye Screening Length: Effects of Nanostructured Materials, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014, p. 133–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Reliability Engineering and System Safety.

Blog post
Andrew E. The Most Distant Galaxy Has Been Discovered. IFLScience 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Controls Over Nonimmigrant Aliens Remain Ineffective. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jenkins D. Leadership Best Practices for Female Executives in the Information Technology Industry. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon MR. Defense Secretary Says He Didn’t Contradict President. New York Times 2017:A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleReliability Engineering and System Safety
AbbreviationReliab. Eng. Syst. Saf.
ISSN (print)0951-8320
ScopeIndustrial and Manufacturing Engineering
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality

Other styles