How to format your references using the Foot and Ankle Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Foot and Ankle Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grenier IA. Gamma-ray astronomy. A needle in a cosmic haystack. Nature 2000;404:344–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Romano M, Cifelli RL. Geology. 100 years of continental drift. Science 2015;350:915–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gancarz-Kausch AM, Adank DN, Dietz DM. Prolonged withdrawal following cocaine self-administration increases resistance to punishment in a cocaine binge. Sci Rep 2014;4:6876.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Simonson TS, Yang Y, Huff CD, Yun H, Qin G, Witherspoon DJ, et al. Genetic evidence for high-altitude adaptation in Tibet. Science 2010;329:72–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Padova T. Adobe® Acrobat® X PDF Bible. Indianapolis, IN, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Heim B, Al-Baali M, Ibukiyama T, Rupp F, editors. Automorphic Forms: Research in Number Theory from Oman. vol. 115. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Roumelis G, Vassilakopoulos M, Corral A, Manolopoulos Y. The K Group Nearest-Neighbor Query on Non-indexed RAM-Resident Data. In: Grueau C, Gustavo Rocha J, editors. Geographical Information Systems Theory, Applications and Management: First International Conference, GISTAM 2015, Barcelona, Spain, April 28-30, 2015, Revised Selected Papers, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 69–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Foot and Ankle Surgery.

Blog post
Davis J. Newly Discovered Glass Frog Shows Off Its Beating Heart. IFLScience 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Amendment of FCC Rules to Deregulate the Equipment Authorization Requirements for Digital Devices. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lu Y-C. From confrontation to accommodation: China’s policy toward the U.S. in the post-Cold War era. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wallace N. The G.O.P. Waits for Trump to Grow Up. New York Times 2016:A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFoot and Ankle Surgery
AbbreviationFoot Ankle Surg.
ISSN (print)1268-7731
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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