How to format your references using the Foot and Ankle Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Foot and Ankle Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Chenn A. Eppendorf & Science Prize. Essays on science and society. Making a bigger brain by regulating cell cycle exit. Science 2002;298:766–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Burrows M, Sutton G. Interacting gears synchronize propulsive leg movements in a jumping insect. Science 2013;341:1254–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Minai L, Yeheskely-Hayon D, Yelin D. High levels of reactive oxygen species in gold nanoparticle-targeted cancer cells following femtosecond pulse irradiation. Sci Rep 2013;3:2146.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Liu F, Marquardt S, Lister C, Swiezewski S, Dean C. Targeted 3’ processing of antisense transcripts triggers Arabidopsis FLC chromatin silencing. Science 2010;327:94–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Pettit J. The Final Frontier. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
[1]
Zadrozny P. Big Data Analytics Using Splunk. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Gaskó N, Lung RI, Dumitrescu D. Strong Berge and Strong Berge Pareto Equilibrium Detection Using an Evolutionary Approach. In: Precup R-E, Kovács S, Preitl S, Petriu EM, editors. Applied Computational Intelligence in Engineering and Information Technology: Revised and Selected Papers from the 6th IEEE International Symposium on Applied Computational Intelligence and Informatics SACI 2011, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012, p. 51–8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Foot and Ankle Surgery.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. How Frogs And Fish Can Help Us Learn To Freeze Humans. IFLScience 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/how-frogs-and-fish-can-help-us-learn-freeze-humans/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. General Aviation: Observations Related to Liability Insurance Requirements and Coverage for Aircraft Owners. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Starner RN. Expanding the Scope of Silyl Protecting Groups for Sialylation Reactions. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Urbina I, Fink S. A Deadly Fungus and Questions at a Hospital. New York Times 2014:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFoot and Ankle Surgery
AbbreviationFoot Ankle Surg.
ISSN (print)1268-7731
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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