How to format your references using the Foot and Ankle Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Foot and Ankle Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Corkum P. Laser physics. Attosecond pulses at last. Nature 2000;403:845–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Koeller KM, Wong CH. Enzymes for chemical synthesis. Nature 2001;409:232–40.
A journal article with 3 authors
Samokhvalov IM, Samokhvalova NI, Nishikawa S-I. Cell tracing shows the contribution of the yolk sac to adult haematopoiesis. Nature 2007;446:1056–61.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhu Q, Sun Y, Zhu J, Fang T, Zhang W, Li J-X. Antinociceptive effects of sinomenine in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Sci Rep 2014;4:7270.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Salles M. Decision-Making and the Information System. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
Kansaku K, Cohen LG, editors. Systems Neuroscience and Rehabilitation. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Hlaváčková-Schindler K, Pereverzyev S. Lasso Granger Causal Models: Some Strategies and Their Efficiency for Gene Expression Regulatory Networks. In: Guy TV, Kárný M, Wolpert DH, editors. Decision Making: Uncertainty, Imperfection, Deliberation and Scalability, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 91–117.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Foot and Ankle Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E. Shark Attacks Are So Unlikely, But So Fascinating. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NASA Program Costs: Space Missions Require Substantially More Funding Than Initially Estimated. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Belic B. Complement Verb Variation in Present-Day Serbian. Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University, 2005.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. Deal Is Said to Be Close in Detroit’s Bankruptcy. New York Times 2014:A26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFoot and Ankle Surgery
AbbreviationFoot Ankle Surg.
ISSN (print)1268-7731
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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