How to format your references using the Foods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Foods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rothwell, N.J. Show Them How It’s Really Done. Nature 2000, 405, 621.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tikhonov, V.I.; Volkov, A.A. Separation of Water into Its Ortho and Para Isomers. Science 2002, 296, 2363.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lin, Y.-J.; Jiménez-García, K.; Spielman, I.B. Spin-Orbit-Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates. Nature 2011, 471, 83–86.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Vörösmarty, C.J.; Osuna, V.R.; Koehler, D.A.; Klop, P.; Spengler, J.D.; Buonocore, J.J.; Cak, A.D.; Tessler, Z.D.; Corsi, F.; Green, P.A.; et al. Scientifically Assess Impacts of Sustainable Investments. Science 2018, 359, 523–525.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zeng, K.; Lou, W.; Li, M. Multihop Wireless Networks; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2011; ISBN 9781119973607.
An edited book
Brain Function and Responsiveness in Disorders of Consciousness; Monti, M.M., Sannita, W.G., Eds.; 1st ed. 2016.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319214245.
A chapter in an edited book
Cushman, R.A.; McDaneld, T.G.; Kuehn, L.A.; Snelling, W.M.; Nonneman, D. Incorporation of Genetic Technologies Associated with Applied Reproductive Technologies to Enhance World Food Production. In Current and Future Reproductive Technologies and World Food Production; Lamb, G.C., DiLorenzo, N., Eds.; Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology; Springer: New York, NY, 2014; pp. 77–96 ISBN 9781461488866.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Foods.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. What Would Happen If Bees Went Extinct? Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Why NASA’s Property Accounting and Control System Should Be Improved; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1976;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gomez, D.A. System of Systems Engineering: Prescribing the Technical Development Effort to Engineer a Constituent System. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. Film Series. New York Times 2017, C23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFoods
ISSN (online)2304-8158

Other styles