How to format your references using the Foods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Foods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hyman, S. Mental health: depression needs large human-genetics studies. Nature 2014, 515, 189–191.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yu, H.K.; Lee, J.-L. Growth mechanism of metal-oxide nanowires synthesized by electron beam evaporation: a self-catalytic vapor-liquid-solid process. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6589.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mukhopadhyay, S.; Farley, K.A.; Montanari, A. A short duration of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary event: evidence from extraterrestrial helium-3. Science 2001, 291, 1952–1955.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lenarčič, T.; Albert, I.; Böhm, H.; Hodnik, V.; Pirc, K.; Zavec, A.B.; Podobnik, M.; Pahovnik, D.; Žagar, E.; Pruitt, R.; et al. Eudicot plant-specific sphingolipids determine host selectivity of microbial NLP cytolysins. Science 2017, 358, 1431–1434.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paolella, M.S. Fundamental Probability; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2006; ISBN 9780470035351.
An edited book
Database and XML Technologies: 4th International XML Database Symposium, XSym 2006 Seoul, Korea, September 10-11, 2006 Proceedings; Amer-Yahia, S., Bellahsène, Z., Hunt, E., Unland, R., Yu, J.X., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006; Vol. 4156; ISBN 9783540388777.
A chapter in an edited book
Ruiz-Amaya, J.; Delgado-Restituto, M.; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Á. Behavioural Modelling of Pipeline ADCs. In Device-Level Modeling and Synthesis of High-Performance Pipeline ADCs; Delgado-Restituto, M., Rodríguez-Vázquez, Á., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2011; pp. 65–103 ISBN 9781441988454.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Foods.

Blog post
Davis, J. Brain Scans May Be Able To Help Diagnose Babies At Risk Of Developing Autism (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Review of Contractors’ Pension and Other Benefits for Employees Working at NASA’s Scientific and Technical Information Facility; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1981;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Capobianco, V.J. Effect of slot height variation on the aerodynamic performance of a circulation control airfoil: A CFD analysis. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. The Bright Side of 2016. New York Times 2016, BR6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFoods
ISSN (online)2304-8158

Other styles