How to format your references using the Foods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Foods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bowles, S. Being human: Conflict: Altruism’s midwife. Nature 2008, 456, 326–327.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kofoed, E.M.; Vance, R.E. Innate immune recognition of bacterial ligands by NAIPs determines inflammasome specificity. Nature 2011, 477, 592–595.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim, H.K.; Hanson, G.W.; Geller, D.A. Chemistry. Are gold clusters in RF fields hot or not? Science 2013, 340, 441–442.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sliogeryte, K.; Thorpe, S.D.; Lee, D.A.; Botto, L.; Knight, M.M. Stem cell differentiation increases membrane-actin adhesion regulating cell blebability, migration and mechanics. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 7307.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hull, B. Manufacturing Best Practices; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2010; ISBN 9781118983874.
An edited book
Radicals in Synthesis III; Heinrich, M., Gansäuer, A., Eds.; Topics in Current Chemistry; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; Vol. 320; ISBN 9783642281228.
A chapter in an edited book
Tomás-Rodríguez, M.; Banks, S.P. Spectral Assignment in Linear, Time-varying Systems. In Linear, Time-varying Approximations to Nonlinear Dynamical Systems: with Applications in Control and Optimization; Banks, S.P., Ed.; Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences; Springer: London, 2010; pp. 75–100 ISBN 9781849961004.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Foods.

Blog post
Andrew, D. There Are Bright Spots Among The World’s Coral Reefs – The Challenge Is To Learn From Them Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Regulatory Programs: Opportunities to Enhance Oversight of the Real Estate Appraisal Industry; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2004;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Negussie, H. Integration of indigenous knowledge and cultural practices in early childhood care and education programs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: An exploratory case study. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. Relatives of Flight 93 Victims Run to Keep Memories Alive. New York Times 2011, B16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFoods
ISSN (online)2304-8158

Other styles