How to format your references using the Foods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Foods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Keasling, J.D. Manufacturing Molecules through Metabolic Engineering. Science 2010, 330, 1355–1358.
A journal article with 2 authors
Parish, M.M.; Littlewood, P.B. Non-Saturating Magnetoresistance in Heavily Disordered Semiconductors. Nature 2003, 426, 162–165.
A journal article with 3 authors
Legrand, Y.-M.; van der Lee, A.; Barboiu, M. Single-Crystal X-Ray Structure of 1,3-Dimethylcyclobutadiene by Confinement in a Crystalline Matrix. Science 2010, 329, 299–302.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kloer, D.P.; Ruch, S.; Al-Babili, S.; Beyer, P.; Schulz, G.E. The Structure of a Retinal-Forming Carotenoid Oxygenase. Science 2005, 308, 267–269.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Beiser, L. Unified Optical Scanning Technology; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005; ISBN 9780471723738.
An edited book
Recent Advances on Hybrid Approaches for Designing Intelligent Systems; Castillo, O., Melin, P., Pedrycz, W., Kacprzyk, J., Eds.; Studies in Computational Intelligence; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; Vol. 547; ISBN 9783319051697.
A chapter in an edited book
Subashini, P.; Krishnaveni, M.; Sridevi, N. Period Prediction System for Tamil Epigraphical Scripts Based on Support Vector Machine. In Information Systems for Indian Languages: International Conference, ICISIL 2011, Patiala, India, March 9-11, 2011. Proceedings; Singh, C., Singh Lehal, G., Sengupta, J., Sharma, D.V., Goyal, V., Eds.; Communications in Computer and Information Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011; pp. 23–30 ISBN 9783642194023.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Foods.

Blog post
Fang, J. 600-Year-Old Canoe Offers Glimpse of Early Polynesian Explorers Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office IRS Management: Business and Systems Modernization Pose Challenges; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1999;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Das, A. Optimizing Symbol Timing, Frequency Spacing, and SNR Estimation for Communication Systems. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego: La Jolla, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G.G. You Too Can Learn to Draw, Online. New York Times 2015, F3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFoods
ISSN (online)2304-8158

Other styles