How to format your references using the Foods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Foods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Storz, J.F. Evolution. Genes for High Altitudes. Science 2010, 329, 40–41.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hemmi, J.M.; Zeil, J. Robust Judgement of Inter-Object Distance by an Arthropod. Nature 2003, 421, 160–163.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mochizuki, K.; Matsumoto, M.; Ohmine, I. Defect Pair Separation as the Controlling Step in Homogeneous Ice Melting. Nature 2013, 498, 350–354.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wu, L.; Yang, X.; Duan, X.; Cui, L.; Li, G. Exogenous Expression of Marine Lectins DlFBL and SpRBL Induces Cancer Cell Apoptosis Possibly through PRMT5-E2F-1 Pathway. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4505.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Janke, S.J.; Tinsley, F.C. Introduction to Linear Models and Statistical Inference; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005; ISBN 9780471740117.
An edited book
Heterocyclic Scaffolds I: SS-Lactams; Banik, B.K., Ed.; Topics in Heterocyclic Chemistry; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010; Vol. 22; ISBN 9783642128448.
A chapter in an edited book
de Oliveira, G.S. Approaches to Scientific Modeling, and the (Non)Issue of Representation: A Case Study in Multi-Model Research on Thigmotaxis and Group Thermoregulation. In Model-Based Reasoning in Science and Technology: Logical, Epistemological, and Cognitive Issues; Magnani, L., Casadio, C., Eds.; Studies in Applied Philosophy, Epistemology and Rational Ethics; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 79–100 ISBN 9783319389820.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Foods.

Blog post
Andrew, E. New Process Converts Algae to Crude Oil in Less than an Hour Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Administration of the Science Education Project “Man: A Course of Study”(MACOS); U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1975;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sponsel, H. Was Sagte Dieser Schiller (Damals)? Schillers Antworten Auf Seine Kritiker Nach 1945. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED, M.J. ADP Says Activist Investor Seeks Half Of Its Board Seats and a New C.E.O. New York Times 2017, B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFoods
ISSN (online)2304-8158

Other styles