How to format your references using the Food Security citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food Security. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mollenauer, L. F. (2003). Physics. Nonlinear optics in fibers. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5647), 996–997.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burns, J. A., & Cuzzi, J. N. (2006). Planetary science. Our local astrophysical laboratory. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5781), 1753–1755.
A journal article with 3 authors
Otto, S., Furlan, R. L. E., & Sanders, J. K. M. (2002). Selection and amplification of hosts from dynamic combinatorial libraries of macrocyclic disulfides. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5581), 590–593.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Liu, Y., Tang, N., Wan, X., Feng, Q., Li, M., Xu, Q., et al. (2013). Realization of ferromagnetic graphene oxide with high magnetization by doping graphene oxide with nitrogen. Scientific reports, 3, 2566.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cobb, K. (2008). The Blackwell Guide to Theology and Popular Culture. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Issar, A. S. (Ed.). (2010). Progressive Development: To Mitigate the Negative Impact of Global Warming on the Semi-arid Regions. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Roy, P., Kar, B., & Hussain, I. (2015). Trajectory Control of a Ball in a Ball and Plate System Using Cascaded PD Controllers Tuned by PSO. In K. N. Das, K. Deep, M. Pant, J. C. Bansal, & A. Nagar (Eds.), Proceedings of Fourth International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving: SocProS 2014, Volume 2 (pp. 53–65). New Delhi: Springer India.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food Security.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, June 14). Are You A Psychopath? Take This Test To Find Out. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Office of Thrift Supervision’s Efforts to Ensure Thrift Systems Are Year 2000 Compliant (No. T-AIMD-98-102). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parada, P. M. (2013). Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M. M. (2017, January 20). Inaugural All Its Own Brings Astonishment and Awe to Television. New York Times, p. A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mollenauer 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Burns and Cuzzi 2006; Mollenauer 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Burns and Cuzzi 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood Security
AbbreviationFood Secur.
ISSN (print)1876-4517
ISSN (online)1876-4525
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Food Science

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