How to format your references using the Food Security citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food Security. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yang, X. (2004). An embryonic nation. Nature, 428(6979), 210–212.
A journal article with 2 authors
Srivastava, D., & Ivey, K. N. (2006). Potential of stem-cell-based therapies for heart disease. Nature, 441(7097), 1097–1099.
A journal article with 3 authors
Van Gaal, L. F., Mertens, I. L., & De Block, C. E. (2006). Mechanisms linking obesity with cardiovascular disease. Nature, 444(7121), 875–880.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Cai, W.-J., Chen, L., Chen, B., Gao, Z., Lee, S. H., Chen, J., et al. (2010). Decrease in the CO2 uptake capacity in an ice-free Arctic Ocean basin. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5991), 556–559.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Khoei, A. R. (2014). Extended Finite Element Method. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Ito, T., Hattori, H., Zhang, M., & Matsuo, T. (Eds.). (2008). Rational, Robust, and Secure Negotiations in Multi-Agent Systems (Vol. 89). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gold, C. (2009). Spatial Embedding and Spatial Context. In K. Rothermel, D. Fritsch, W. Blochinger, & F. Dürr (Eds.), Quality of Context: First International Workshop, QuaCon 2009, Stuttgart, Germany, June 25-26, 2009. Revised Papers (pp. 53–64). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food Security.

Blog post
Carpineti, C. (2017, May 17). How Much Does Your Personality Change When You Drink? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). Higher Education: Actions Needed to Improve Access to Federal Financial Assistance for Homeless and Foster Youth (No. GAO-16-343). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dolan, D. J. (2017). Structural Evolution of Martin Crater Thaumasia Planum, Mars (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2012, March 8). At Airline, A Pensions Compromise. New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Yang 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Srivastava and Ivey 2006; Yang 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Srivastava and Ivey 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Cai et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood Security
AbbreviationFood Secur.
ISSN (print)1876-4517
ISSN (online)1876-4525
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Food Science

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