How to format your references using the Food Security citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food Security. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott, A. (2002). Babies’ cancer screens “not needed.” Nature, 416(6879), 356.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bercovici, D., & Karato, S.-I. (2003). Whole-mantle convection and the transition-zone water filter. Nature, 425(6953), 39–44.
A journal article with 3 authors
Russo, R., Herrmann, H. J., & de Arcangelis, L. (2014). Brain modularity controls the critical behavior of spontaneous activity. Scientific reports, 4, 4312.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kim, K.-C., Reed, C. A., Elliott, D. W., Mueller, L. J., Tham, F., Lin, L., & Lambert, J. B. (2002). Crystallographic evidence for a free silylium ion. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5582), 825–827.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eligehausen, R., Mallée, R., & Silva, J. F. (2012). Anchorage in Concrete Construction. Berlin, Germany: Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG.
An edited book
C.K. Lau, P. (Ed.). (2016). Quality Living Through Chemurgy and Green Chemistry. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Knaster, S., Malik, W., & Dalrymple, M. (2012). Inheritance. In W. Malik & M. Dalrymple (Eds.), Learn Objective-C on the Mac: For iOS and OS X (pp. 53–65). Berkeley, CA: Apress.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food Security.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017, February 14). World’s Rarest Boa Seen For The First Time In Over 60 Years. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). Financing College Facilities: Factors Limit Connie Lee’s Ability to Help More Schools (No. HEHS-96-6). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Terrell, S. (2010). How Global Leaders Develop: A Phenomenological Study of Global Leadership Development (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, P. (2017, July 18). Reluctantly, Trump Recertifies Iran’s Compliance With Nuclear Agreement. New York Times, p. A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Abbott 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Abbott 2002; Bercovici and Karato 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bercovici and Karato 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Kim et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood Security
AbbreviationFood Secur.
ISSN (print)1876-4517
ISSN (online)1876-4525
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Food Science

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