How to format your references using the Food Security citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food Security. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holmes, D. (2015). Ovarian cancer: beyond resistance. Nature, 527(7579), S217.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chudinovskikh, L., & Boehler, R. (2001). High-pressure polymorphs of olivine and the 660-km seismic discontinuity. Nature, 411(6837), 574–577.
A journal article with 3 authors
Crespo-Hernández, C. E., Cohen, B., & Kohler, B. (2005). Base stacking controls excited-state dynamics in A.T DNA. Nature, 436(7054), 1141–1144.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
McLellan, J. S., Marcos, S., Prieto, P. M., & Burns, S. A. (2002). Imperfect optics may be the eye’s defence against chromatic blur. Nature, 417(6885), 174–176.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Means, R. S. (2010). Green Building: Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Oza, N. C., Polikar, R., Kittler, J., & Roli, F. (Eds.). (2005). Multiple Classifier Systems: 6th International Workshop, MCS 2005, Seaside, CA, USA, June 13-15, 2005. Proceedings (Vol. 3541). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Pismen, L. M. (2010). Thin Film and Droplet Patterns Shaped by Surface Forces. In P. Colinet & A. Nepomnyashchy (Eds.), Pattern Formation at Interfaces (pp. 173–217). Vienna: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food Security.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, April 23). Spider Versus Snake. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). Education and Workforce Data: Challenges in Matching Student and Worker Information Raise Concerns about Longitudinal Data Systems (No. GAO-15-27). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barkis, B. (2017). How Do Highly Engaged Employees and Managers Find Meaning in Their Work? (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter, J. (2016, November 30). E.U. Plans Big Increase in Military Spending. New York Times, p. A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Holmes 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Chudinovskikh and Boehler 2001; Holmes 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chudinovskikh and Boehler 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (McLellan et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood Security
AbbreviationFood Secur.
ISSN (print)1876-4517
ISSN (online)1876-4525
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Food Science

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