How to format your references using the Food Security citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food Security. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Van Dyk, S. D. (2003). Astronomy. Elusive supernova progenitors. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5648), 1161–1162.
A journal article with 2 authors
Coburn, W., & Boggs, S. E. (2003). Polarization of the prompt gamma-ray emission from the gamma-ray burst of 6 December 2002. Nature, 423(6938), 415–417.
A journal article with 3 authors
Suma, K., Sumiyoshi, Y., & Endo, Y. (2006). The rotational spectrum of the water-hydroperoxy radical (H2O-HO2) complex. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5765), 1278–1281.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Maret, S., Franken, P., Dauvilliers, Y., Ghyselinck, N. B., Chambon, P., & Tafti, M. (2005). Retinoic acid signaling affects cortical synchrony during sleep. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5745), 111–113.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hackshaw, A. (2014). A Concise Guide to Observational Studies in Healthcare. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Brooks, A. L., Brahnam, S., & Jain, L. C. (Eds.). (2014). Technologies of Inclusive Well-Being: Serious Games, Alternative Realities, and Play Therapy (Vol. 536). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Caracas, R. (2013). First-Principles Calculations of Physical Properties of Planetary Ices. In M. S. Gudipati & J. Castillo-Rogez (Eds.), The Science of Solar System Ices (pp. 149–169). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food Security.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017, February 8). What’s Going On At Fukushima? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). Aviation Security: FAA Can Help Ensure That Airports’ Access Control Systems Are Cost-Effective (No. RCED-95-25). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cong, M. (2015). Predictive models of cytotoxicity as mediated by exposure to environmental toxicants and drugs (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W., & Yaccino, S. (2013, June 18). In Embattled Detroit, No Talk of Sharing Pain Between Retirees and Bondholders. New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Van Dyk 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Coburn and Boggs 2003; Van Dyk 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Coburn and Boggs 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Maret et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood Security
AbbreviationFood Secur.
ISSN (print)1876-4517
ISSN (online)1876-4525
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Food Science

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