How to format your references using the Irish Historical Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Irish Historical Studies (IHS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bassham, Diane C., ‘Plant biology: Pigments on the move’ in Nature, dxxvi, no. 7575 (2015), pp 644–645
A journal article with 2 authors
Roxburgh, Stephen H. and Karel Mokany, ‘Comment on “From plant traits to plant communities: a statistical mechanistic approach to biodiversity”’ in Science (New York, N.Y.), cccxvi, no. 5830 (2007), pp 1425; author reply 1425
A journal article with 3 authors
Alanyali, Merve, Helen Susannah Moat and Tobias Preis, ‘Quantifying the relationship between financial news and the stock market’ in Scientific reports, iii (2013), p. 3578
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Nakayama, Yuri, Peter J. Pauzauskie, Aleksandra Radenovic, Robert M. Onorato, Richard J. Saykally, Jan Liphardt and Peidong Yang, ‘Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe’ in Nature, cdxlvii, no. 7148 (2007), pp 1098–1101

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Avdeef, Alex, Absorption and Drug Development (Hoboken, NJ, 2012)
An edited book
Scholz, Christian and Joachim Zentes (eds), Strategic Management — New Rules for Old Europe (Wiesbaden, 2006)
A chapter in an edited book
Papa, David A. and Igor L. Markov, ‘Gate Sizing During Timing-Driven Placement’ in Igor L. Markov (ed.), Multi-Objective Optimization in Physical Synthesis of Integrated Circuits (Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, New York, NY, 2013), pp 65–80

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Irish Historical Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise, ‘A Dark Night Is Good For Your Health’ in IFLScience (2016) ( (30 Oct. 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Transportation Infrastructure: Estimated Funding Under the Transportation Empowerment Act, by Government Accountability Office, RCED-97-73R (Washington, DC, 1997)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jorge, Maldonado Higinio, ‘Relationships Among Poverty, Financial Services, Human Capital, Risk Coping, and Natural Resources: Evidence from El Salvador and Bolivia’ (Doctoral dissertation thesis, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 2004)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Caitlin, ‘Good Customers, Bad Bill Payers’ in New York Times, 17 Dec. 2009, p. B8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleIrish Historical Studies
AbbreviationIr. Hist. Stud.
ISSN (print)0021-1214

Other styles