How to format your references using the Irish Historical Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Irish Historical Studies (IHS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schooler, Jonathan, ‘Unpublished results hide the decline effect’ in Nature, cdlxx, no. 7335 (2011), p. 437
A journal article with 2 authors
Mehta, Rita S. and Peter C. Wainwright, ‘Raptorial jaws in the throat help moray eels swallow large prey’ in Nature, cdxlix, no. 7158 (2007), pp 79–82
A journal article with 3 authors
McCormick, David A., Yousheng Shu and Yuguo Yu, ‘Neurophysiology: Hodgkin and Huxley model--still standing?’ in Nature, cdxlv, no. 7123 (2007), pp E1-2; discussion E2-3
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Amaral Zettler, Linda A., Felipe Gómez, Erik Zettler, Brendan G. Keenan, Ricardo Amils and Mitchell L. Sogin, ‘Microbiology: eukaryotic diversity in Spain’s River of Fire’ in Nature, cdxvii, no. 6885 (2002), p. 137

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chen, Naixing, Aerothermodynamics of Turbomachinery (Chichester, UK, 2010)
An edited book
Castano, Silvana, Panos Vassiliadis, Laks V. Lakshmanan and Mong Li Lee (eds), Advances in Conceptual Modeling: ER 2012 Workshops CMS, ECDM-NoCoDA, MoDIC, MORE-BI, RIGiM, SeCoGIS, WISM, Florence, Italy, October 15-18, 2012. Proceedings (Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012)
A chapter in an edited book
Lepik, Ülo and Helle Hein, ‘Integral Equations’ in Helle Hein (ed.), Haar Wavelets: With Applications (Mathematical Engineering, Cham, 2014), pp 59–82

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Irish Historical Studies.

Blog post
Evans, Katy, ‘African Forest Elephants Could Take 100 Years To Recover From Poaching’ in IFLScience (2016) ( (30 Oct. 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Study of United States Government Wind Tunnels, by Government Accountability Office, B-114825 (Washington, DC, 1954)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nadeau, Elizabeth M., ‘Baby Boomer Generation’s Knowledge of Alzheimer’s Disease’ (Doctoral dissertation thesis, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, Linda, ‘Tapping Dancers Who Love Fiddlers’ in New York Times, 14 May 2006, p. LI9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleIrish Historical Studies
AbbreviationIr. Hist. Stud.
ISSN (print)0021-1214

Other styles