How to format your references using the Irish Historical Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Irish Historical Studies (IHS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nagaosa, Naoto, ‘Physics. A new state of quantum matter’ in Science (New York, N.Y.), cccxviii, no. 5851 (2007), pp 758–759
A journal article with 2 authors
Pimm, S. L. and R. J. van Aarde, ‘African elephants and contraception’ in Nature, cdxi, no. 6839 (2001), p. 766
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhou, Tao, Yi Gao and Z. D. Wang, ‘Topological quantum phase transitions and edge states in spin-orbital coupled Fermi gases’ in Scientific reports, iv (2014), p. 5218
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Aaskov, John, Katie Buzacott, Hlaing Myat Thu, Kym Lowry and Edward C. Holmes, ‘Long-term transmission of defective RNA viruses in humans and Aedes mosquitoes’ in Science (New York, N.Y.), cccxi, no. 5758 (2006), pp 236–238

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Perrin, Vincent, MRI Techniques (Hoboken, NJ USA, 2013)
An edited book
Mintz, Steven (ed.), Accounting for the Public Interest: Perspectives on Accountability, Professionalism and Role in Society (Advances in Business Ethics Research, A Journal of Business Ethics Book Series, Dordrecht, 2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Yang, Ming and Ruonan Rao, ‘Indoor Positioning Data Obstacle Avoidance and Visualization Framework Based on A* Algorithm’ in Hepu Deng, Duoqian Miao, Jingsheng Lei and Fu Lee Wang (eds), Artificial Intelligence and Computational Intelligence: Third International Conference, AICI 2011, Taiyuan, China, September 24-25, 2011, Proceedings, Part II (Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011), pp 26–33

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Irish Historical Studies.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen, ‘Huge Meta-Study Of Vaccines Reveals No Link To Autism’ in IFLScience (2014) ( (30 Oct. 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Capitalization and Use of the Automatic Data Processing Fund That Is Administered by the General Services Administration, by Government Accountability Office, B-115369 (Washington, DC, 1977)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Simmons, Christopher, ‘Correlates and predictors of cognitive complexity among counseling and social work students in graduate training programs’ (Doctoral dissertation thesis, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, 2008)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, Linda, ‘Justices Hear Arguments On Late-Term Abortion’ in New York Times, 9 Nov. 2006, p. A25

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleIrish Historical Studies
AbbreviationIr. Hist. Stud.
ISSN (print)0021-1214

Other styles