How to format your references using the Journal of Cancer Research and Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Cancer Research and Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Rewarding experience. Nature. 2003;425(6960):879.
A journal article with 2 authors
Crivoi A, Duan F. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo model of the coffee-ring effect in evaporating colloidal droplets. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4310.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li LY, Luo X, Wang X. Endonuclease G is an apoptotic DNase when released from mitochondria. Nature. 2001;412(6842):95-99.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Eelkema R, Pollard MM, Vicario J, et al. Molecular machines: nanomotor rotates microscale objects. Nature. 2006;440(7081):163.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Martin-Flatin JP. Web-Based Management of IP Networks and Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2002.
An edited book
Tomkos I, Spyropoulou M, Ennser K, Köhn M, Mikac B, eds. Towards Digital Optical Networks: COST Action 291 Final Report. Vol 5412. Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Ramasubramanian K, Sriram MS. Solar eclipse. In: Sriram MS, ed. Tantrasaṅgraha of Nīlakaṇṭha Somayājī. Springer; 2011:305-356.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Cancer Research and Practice.

Blog post
Andrew E. What Makes Our Brains Unique? IFLScience. Published November 16, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Indian Affairs: Better Management and Accountability Needed to Improve Indian Education. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Walker D. University Research Adminstrators’ Perception of Incivility and the Relationship to Employee Engagement. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz J. Scientists Search for Global Warming’s Role as Hurricanes Return in Force. New York Times. September 3, 2016:A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Cancer Research and Practice
AbbreviationJ. Canc. Res. Pr.
ISSN (print)2311-3006

Other styles