How to format your references using the Journal of Cancer Research and Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Cancer Research and Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Levin GV. O2- ions and the Mars labeled release response. Science. 2001;291(5511):2041.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dennis C, Byrne N. Harvesting biotechnology. Nature. 2004;429(6991 Suppl):1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Martin AA, Toth M, Aharonovich I. Subtractive 3D printing of optically active diamond structures. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5022.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Barnett BP, Hwang Y, Taylor MS, et al. Glucose and weight control in mice with a designed ghrelin O-acyltransferase inhibitor. Science. 2010;330(6011):1689-1692.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Veasey DA, McCormick LC, Hilyer BM, Oldfield KW, Hansen S, Krayer TH. Confined Space Entry and Emergency Response. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Wieder RK, Vitt DH, eds. Boreal Peatland Ecosystems. Vol 188. Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Brown RE, Kuk JL. Composite Risk Scores. In: Mechanick JI, Kushner RF, eds. Lifestyle Medicine: A Manual for Clinical Practice. Springer International Publishing; 2016:41-54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Cancer Research and Practice.

Blog post
Andrew E. Stem Cell Therapy Allows Mice With MS-Like Condition To Walk Again. IFLScience. Published May 16, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. More Can Be Done To Improve the Department of Agriculture’s Commodity Donation Program. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gunderson CA. The Moderating Effect of Type of Target on the Relationship between Collective Rumination and Displaced Aggression. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MacFARQUHAR N. Russia, Jailer of Local Separatists, Hosts Foreign Ones. New York Times. September 25, 2016:A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Cancer Research and Practice
AbbreviationJ. Canc. Res. Pr.
ISSN (print)2311-3006

Other styles