How to format your references using the Journal of Cancer Research and Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Cancer Research and Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Korgel BA. Materials science. Nanosprings take shape. Science. 2005;309(5741):1683-1684.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gupta M, Zare RN. Spinning molecules to bits. Nature. 2000;407(6800):33-34.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nielsen SB, Stephenson R, Thomsen E. Dynamics of Mid-Palaeocene North Atlantic rifting linked with European intra-plate deformations. Nature. 2007;450(7172):1071-1074.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Fridley BL, Jenkins GD, Grill DE, Kennedy RB, Poland GA, Oberg AL. Soft truncation thresholding for gene set analysis of RNA-seq data: application to a vaccine study. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2898.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cross M, MacDonald B. Nutrition in Institutions. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2008.
An edited book
He W. Gas Transport in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. (Lv W, Dickerson J, eds.). Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhu X, Song B, Ni Y, Ren Y, Li R. Mobile Internet—From PC-Based Internet to PC-Based Internet and Mobile Internet. In: Song B, Ni Y, Ren Y, Li R, eds. Business Trends in the Digital Era: Evolution of Theories and Applications. Singapore: Springer; 2016:63-82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Cancer Research and Practice.

Blog post
Andrew E. Information Flows In Opposite Directions During Imagination And Reality. IFLScience. Published November 20, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Cuban Embargo: Selected Issues Relating to Travel, Exports, and Telecommunications. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aguerrebere Y. Case study of home-school visits. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY JC Jr. Hip-Hop Artist, Accused of Being a Gang Leader, Pleads Guilty to Conspiracy and Weapons Charges. New York Times. September 10, 2016:A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Cancer Research and Practice
AbbreviationJ. Canc. Res. Pr.
ISSN (print)2311-3006

Other styles