How to format your references using the Journal of Cancer Research and Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Cancer Research and Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lang RF. Astronomy. Fishing for the universe. Science. 2010;327(5973):1582-1583.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li G-W, Xie XS. Central dogma at the single-molecule level in living cells. Nature. 2011;475(7356):308-315.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brun T, Devetak I, Hsieh M-H. Correcting quantum errors with entanglement. Science. 2006;314(5798):436-439.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Garcia V, Fusil S, Bouzehouane K, et al. Giant tunnel electroresistance for non-destructive readout of ferroelectric states. Nature. 2009;460(7251):81-84.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jäger W, Marzahn G. Mauerwerk. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2010.
An edited book
Ismail-Zadeh A. Data-Driven Numerical Modelling in Geodynamics: Methods and Applications. (Korotkii A, Tsepelev I, eds.). Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Bailly C, Comte-Bellot G. Free Turbulent Flows: Jets and Wakes. In: Comte-Bellot G, ed. Turbulence. Experimental Fluid Mechanics. Springer International Publishing; 2015:85-112.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Cancer Research and Practice.

Blog post
Andrew E. Your Gut Bacteria Don’t Like Junk Food – Even If You Do. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Insights Into CETA’s In-School Youth Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ziegler RT. The Impact of Strategic Planning Involvement on Employee Engagement in a Federal Public Health Agency. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon MR. Iraqi Forces Open a New Front Against ISIS in West Mosul. New York Times. May 4, 2017:A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Cancer Research and Practice
AbbreviationJ. Canc. Res. Pr.
ISSN (print)2311-3006

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