How to format your references using the Food Chemistry: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food Chemistry: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Christe, K. O. (2008). Obituary: Neil Bartlett (1932-2008). Nature, 455(7210), 182.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hale, M. S., & Rivkin, R. B. (2006). Comment on “Nature of phosphorus limitation in the ultraoligotrophic eastern Mediterranean.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5781), 1748; author reply 1748.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thomson, K. S., Sutton, M., & Thomas, B. (2003). A larval Devonian lungfish. Nature, 426(6968), 833–834.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Cuthill, I. C., Stevens, M., Sheppard, J., Maddocks, T., Párraga, C. A., & Troscianko, T. S. (2005). Disruptive coloration and background pattern matching. Nature, 434(7029), 72–74.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morris, G. L. (2014). Investing with the Trend. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Baba, A., Howard, K. W. F., & Gunduz, O. (Eds.). (2006). Groundwater and Ecosystems. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Dawson, A., Kringos, N., Scarpas, T., & Pavšič, P. (2009). Water in the Pavement Surfacing. In A. Dawson (Ed.), Water in Road Structures: Movement, Drainage and Effects (pp. 81–105). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food Chemistry: X.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2017, January 13). Megalodon Shark May Have Died Out Because It Refused To Pick On Someone Its Own Size. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1973). Effective Central Control Could Improve DOD’s Ammunition Logistics (B-176139). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kehoe, R. M. (2009). Parental long-term care choices from the perspectives of their sandwich-generation adult children [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010, April 29). Dust Off the Old Stock. New York Times, E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Christe, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Christe, 2008; Hale & Rivkin, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hale & Rivkin, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Thomson et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Cuthill et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood Chemistry: X
ISSN (print)2590-1575

Other styles