How to format your references using the Food and Environmental Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food and Environmental Virology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boisvert, C. A. (2005). The pelvic fin and girdle of Panderichthys and the origin of tetrapod locomotion. Nature, 438(7071), 1145–1147.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu, C.-Y., & Bard, A. J. (2002). Pressure-induced insulator conductor transition in a photoconducting organic liquid-crystal film. Nature, 418(6894), 162–164.
A journal article with 3 authors
Glazier, A. M., Nadeau, J. H., & Aitman, T. J. (2002). Finding genes that underlie complex traits. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5602), 2345–2349.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Sun, B., Griffin, B. M., Ayala-del-Río, H. L., Hashsham, S. A., & Tiedje, J. M. (2002). Microbial dehalorespiration with 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5595), 1023–1025.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Seyfried, T. N. (2012). Cancer as a Metabolic Disease. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Constanda, C., & Harris, P. J. (Eds.). (2011). Integral Methods in Science and Engineering: Computational and Analytic Aspects (1st ed.). Boston, MA: Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
Efremov, S., Pilipenko, N., Voskov, L., & Komarov, M. (2015). Cloud IoT Platforms: A Solid Foundation for the Future Web or a Temporary Workaround? In S. Balandin, S. Andreev, & Y. Koucheryavy (Eds.), Internet of Things, Smart Spaces, and Next Generation Networks and Systems: 15th International Conference, NEW2AN 2015, and 8th Conference, ruSMART 2015, St. Petersburg, Russia, August 26-28, 2015, Proceedings (pp. 47–55). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food and Environmental Virology.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2017, January 3). World’s Oldest Known Orca Feared Dead. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Telecommunications: Concerns About Competition in the Cellular Telephone Service Industry (No. RCED-92-220). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yao, D. (2009). In situ activity of NAC11-7 roseobacters in coastal waters off the Chesapeake Bay based on ftsZ expression (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cain, S. (2017, March 24). Followers Wanted. New York Times, p. SR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Boisvert 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Boisvert 2005; Liu and Bard 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Liu and Bard 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Sun et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood and Environmental Virology
AbbreviationFood Environ. Virol.
ISSN (print)1867-0334
ISSN (online)1867-0342
ScopeFood Science
Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Other styles