How to format your references using the Food and Environmental Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food and Environmental Virology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Andelman, S. J. (2011). Conservation science outside the comfort zone. Nature, 475(7356), 290–291.
A journal article with 2 authors
Corfe, I. J., & Butler, R. J. (2006). Comment on “A well-preserved Archaeopteryx specimen with theropod features.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5791), 1238; author reply 1238.
A journal article with 3 authors
Baldo, M. A., Thompson, M. E., & Forrest, S. R. (2000). High-efficiency fluorescent organic light-emitting devices using a phosphorescent sensitizer. Nature, 403(6771), 750–753.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chu, L., Li, L., Su, J., Tu, F., Liu, N., & Gao, Y. (2014). A general method for preparing anatase TiO₂ treelike-nanoarrays on various metal wires for fiber dye-sensitized solar cells. Scientific reports, 4, 4420.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marvin, S. (2010). Dictionary of Scientific Principles. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Buchholz, B. M. (2014). Smart Grids – Fundamentals and Technologies in Electricity Networks. (Z. Styczynski, Ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhiyanski, M., Gikov, A., Nedkov, S., Dimitrov, P., & Naydenova, L. (2016). Mapping Carbon Storage Using Land Cover/Land Use Data in the Area of Beklemeto, Central Balkan. In B. Koulov & G. Zhelezov (Eds.), Sustainable Mountain Regions: Challenges and Perspectives in Southeastern Europe (pp. 53–65). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food and Environmental Virology.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, January 7). An X-Ray Outburst By Our Own Black Hole Shatters Existing Records. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Aviation Research: Information on FAA’s Research, Engineering, and Development Program (No. RCED-89-122FS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davidson, A. O. (2009). Observing action research processes in practice (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bittman, M. (2012, October 10). Heavenly Earth. New York Times, p. MM50.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Andelman 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Andelman 2011; Corfe and Butler 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Corfe and Butler 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Chu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood and Environmental Virology
AbbreviationFood Environ. Virol.
ISSN (print)1867-0334
ISSN (online)1867-0342
ScopeFood Science
Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Other styles