How to format your references using the Materials Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Materials Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E.G. Burchard, Medical research: Missing patients, Nature. 513 (2014) 301–302.
A journal article with 2 authors
G.P. Koocher, P. Keith-Spiegel, Peers nip misconduct in the bud, Nature. 466 (2010) 438–440.
A journal article with 3 authors
G.C. Turner, F. Du, A. Varshavsky, Peptides accelerate their uptake by activating a ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway, Nature. 405 (2000) 579–583.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R. Guduru, P. Liang, C. Runowicz, M. Nair, V. Atluri, S. Khizroev, Magneto-electric nanoparticles to enable field-controlled high-specificity drug delivery to eradicate ovarian cancer cells, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2953.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T.E. Wartenberg, A Sneetch Is a Sneetch and Other Philosophical Discoveries, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2013.
An edited book
A. Luna, Diffusion MRI Outside the Brain: A Case-Based Review and Clinical Applications, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
W.A. Adkins, M.G. Davidson, Linear Constant Coefficient Differential Equations, in: M.G. Davidson (Ed.), Ordinary Differential Equations, Springer, New York, NY, 2012: pp. 275–329.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Materials Letters.

Blog post
J. Fang, New Family Of Extinct Marsupials Discovered In Australia, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, High-Speed Ground Transportation: Issues Affecting Development in the United States, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R. Leung, The Effect of Mission Assurance on ELV Launch Success Rate: An Analysis of Two Management Systems for Launch Vehicles, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.M. Chapman, Hundreds in Detroit Protest Over Move to Shut Off Water, New York Times. (2014) A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMaterials Letters
AbbreviationMater. Lett.
ISSN (print)0167-577X
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles