How to format your references using the Materials Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Materials Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Giles, Nanotech takes small step towards burying “grey goo,” Nature. 429 (2004) 591.
A journal article with 2 authors
C.A. Micchelli, N. Perrimon, Evidence that stem cells reside in the adult Drosophila midgut epithelium, Nature. 439 (2006) 475–479.
A journal article with 3 authors
Y. Meng, S. Tanaka, C.-S. Poon, Comment on “Universality in the evolution of orientation columns in the visual cortex,” Science. 336 (2012) 413; author reply 413.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
G. Muttoni, E. Erba, D.V. Kent, V. Bachtadse, Mesozoic Alpine facies deposition as a result of past latitudinal plate motion, Nature. 434 (2005) 59–63.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A.M. Shelby, C.M. McKune, Small Animal Anesthesia Techniques, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
I. Tomkos, M. Spyropoulou, K. Ennser, M. Köhn, B. Mikac, eds., Towards Digital Optical Networks: COST Action 291 Final Report, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
L. Piasecka, Activating Character Strengths Through Poetic Encounters in a Foreign Language—A Case Study, in: D. Gabryś-Barker, D. Gałajda (Eds.), Positive Psychology Perspectives on Foreign Language Learning and Teaching, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 75–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Materials Letters.

Blog post
J. Davis, Australian Rabbits Adapting To Eat Plants Thought To Be Too Toxic, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Information Technology: OMB and Department of Homeland Security Investment Reviews, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Parisi, Correlation of Conditional Admittance and Student Achievement in an Undergraduate Higher Education Setting, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Kimmelman, Brexit Clouds New Subway’s Promise, New York Times. (2017) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMaterials Letters
AbbreviationMater. Lett.
ISSN (print)0167-577X
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics

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