How to format your references using the The Egyptian Journal of Critical Care Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Egyptian Journal of Critical Care Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dagotto E. PHYSICS. When oxides meet face to face. Science 2007;318:1076–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vinson V, Pennisi E. Synthetic biology. The allure of synthetic biology. Introduction. Science 2011;333:1235.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tanimura H, Kanasaki J, Tanimura K. State-resolved ultrafast dynamics of impact ionization in InSb. Sci Rep 2014;4:6849.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pichot C, El Maâtaoui M, Raddi S, Raddi P. Surrogate mother for endangered Cupressus. Nature 2001;412:39.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hens HSLC. Performance Based Building Design 2. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2012.
An edited book
Cassez F, Jard C, editors. Formal Modeling and Analysis of Timed Systems: 6th International Conference, FORMATS 2008, Saint Malo, France, September 15-17, 2008. Proceedings. vol. 5215. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Folorunso Olufemi A, Sunar MS, Jusoh NM. Improved Incremental Orthogonal Centroid Algorithm for Visualising Pipeline Sensor Datasets. In: Badioze Zaman H, Robinson P, Petrou M, Olivier P, Shih TK, Velastin S, et al., editors. Visual Informatics: Sustaining Research and Innovations: Second International Visual Informatics Conference, IVIC 2011, Selangor, Malaysia, November 9-11, 2011, Proceedings, Part I, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011, p. 24–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Egyptian Journal of Critical Care Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Brain Training App Could Help Schizophrenia Patients. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FAA Computer Systems: Limited Progress on Year 2000 Issue Increases Risk Dramatically. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Naik M. Automating the process of antibiotic susceptibility testing. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. A Fresh Pita Oasis, Plus Kebabs and Flatbreads. New York Times 2009:NJ8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Egyptian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
ISSN (print)2090-7303

Other styles