How to format your references using the The Egyptian Journal of Critical Care Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Egyptian Journal of Critical Care Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rogers JA. Materials science. Nanometer-scale printing. Science 2012;337:1459–60.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yeston J, Coontz R. Industrial chemistry. Chemistry writ large. Introduction. Science 2009;325:691.
A journal article with 3 authors
Flower TP, Gribble M, Ridley AR. Deception by flexible alarm mimicry in an African bird. Science 2014;344:513–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Osyczka A, Moser CC, Daldal F, Dutton PL. Reversible redox energy coupling in electron transfer chains. Nature 2004;427:607–12.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paoluzzi A, Pascucci V, Vicentino M, Baldazzi C, Portuesi S. Geometric Programming for Computer-Aided Design. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Cordeiro RLF. Data Mining in Large Sets of Complex Data. London: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Ramasubramanian K, Sriram MS. Lunar eclipse. In: Sriram MS, editor. Tantrasaṅgraha of Nīlakaṇṭha Somayājī, London: Springer; 2011, p. 255–304.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Egyptian Journal of Critical Care Medicine.

Blog post
Andrews R. Does This Shape Look More “Bouba” Or “Kiki” To You? IFLScience 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Proposed Relocation of the Offices of the Social Security Administrator and Staff. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hayes UT. Mental health services for foster youth: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland J, Nir SM. The Village Voice, Keeper of Downtown Cool, Will Shed Its Print Edition. New York Times 2017:A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Egyptian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
ISSN (print)2090-7303

Other styles