How to format your references using the The Egyptian Journal of Critical Care Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Egyptian Journal of Critical Care Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Feldman DE. Physics. Electronically erased. Science 2014;344:1344–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tibbetts EA, Dale J. A socially enforced signal of quality in a paper wasp. Nature 2004;432:218–22.
A journal article with 3 authors
Castelnovo C, Moessner R, Sondhi SL. Magnetic monopoles in spin ice. Nature 2008;451:42–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tunved P, Hansson H-C, Kerminen V-M, Ström J, Maso MD, Lihavainen H, et al. High natural aerosol loading over boreal forests. Science 2006;312:261–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Donald IW. Waste Immobilization in Glass and Ceramic Based Hosts. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
Tatas K. Designing 2D and 3D Network-on-Chip Architectures. New York, NY: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Buhl S, McColl D. BEDFORD’S MORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES. In: McColl D, editor. Henbury Craters and Meteorites: Their Discovery, History and Study, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 54–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Egyptian Journal of Critical Care Medicine.

Blog post
Davis J. New Medical Material Uses Snake Venom To Stem Bleeding. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Noteworthy Improvements in Readiness But Vulnerabilities Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ionedes NJ. An exploration of social interest therapy as a treatment for depression in the elderly. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. Focused on Steering A Dinghy to Sydney. New York Times 1999:812.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Egyptian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
ISSN (print)2090-7303

Other styles