How to format your references using the Food and Chemical Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food and Chemical Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gursky, H., 2002. X-ray astronomy-40 years on. Science 297, 1485–1486.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wrachtrup, J., Finkler, A., 2014. Applied physics: Hybrid sensors ring the changes. Nature 512, 380–381.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yuasa, S., Nagahama, T., Suzuki, Y., 2002. Spin-polarized resonant tunneling in magnetic tunnel junctions. Science 297, 234–237.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Shlyk-Kerner, O., Samish, I., Kaftan, D., Holland, N., Sai, P.S.M., Kless, H., Scherz, A., 2006. Protein flexibility acclimatizes photosynthetic energy conversion to the ambient temperature. Nature 442, 827–830.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saint-Dizier, P., 2014. Musical Rhetoric. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Choi, T.-M. (Ed.), 2012. Handbook of Newsvendor Problems: Models, Extensions and Applications, International Series in Operations Research & Management Science. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Gomes, L.T., de Barros, L.C., Bede, B., 2015. Fuzzy Differential Equations, in: Barros, L.C. de, Bede, B. (Eds.), Fuzzy Differential Equations in Various Approaches, SpringerBriefs in Mathematics. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 69–113.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food and Chemical Toxicology.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. How a Killer Parasite Evolved from Pond Scum [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1974. Assessment of the Work Incentive Program in Washington State (No. B-164031(3)). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Green, S.W., 2015. The influence of satisfaction among African American males on community college choices (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K., 2001. Sooners’ Student Spirit Club Tries to Be Neither Too Raucous Nor Too Tame. New York Times D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gursky, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Gursky, 2002; Wrachtrup and Finkler, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wrachtrup and Finkler, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Shlyk-Kerner et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood and Chemical Toxicology
AbbreviationFood Chem. Toxicol.
ISSN (print)0278-6915
ScopeFood Science
General Medicine

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