How to format your references using the Food and Chemical Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food and Chemical Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Conrad, J., 2015. Reproducibility: Don’t cry wolf. Nature 523, 27–28.
A journal article with 2 authors
Deming, D., Seager, S., 2009. Light and shadow from distant worlds. Nature 462, 301–306.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sims, D.W., Andrews, P.L., Young, J.Z., 2000. Stomach rinsing in rays. Nature 404, 566.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ma, D.K., Jang, M.-H., Guo, J.U., Kitabatake, Y., Chang, M.-L., Pow-Anpongkul, N., Flavell, R.A., Lu, B., Ming, G.-L., Song, H., 2009. Neuronal activity-induced Gadd45b promotes epigenetic DNA demethylation and adult neurogenesis. Science 323, 1074–1077.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DeRosa, T.F., 2008. Advances in Polymer Chemistry and Methods Reported in Recent US Patents. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Tsoukas, C. (Ed.), 2006. Lymphocyte Signal Transduction, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Baignères, T., Vaudenay, S., 2006. Proving the Security of AES Substitution-Permutation Network, in: Preneel, B., Tavares, S. (Eds.), Selected Areas in Cryptography: 12th International Workshop, SAC 2005, Kingston, ON, Canada, August 11-12, 2005, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 65–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food and Chemical Toxicology.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2017. We Should Be Eating 10 Portions Of Fruit And Veg A Day To Live Longer [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1987. [Comments on Federal Employee’s Entitlement to Relocation Expenses Pursuant to Proposed Transfer to FAA] (No. B-227236). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Greene, B., 2017. Repercussions of the Dark Valley - Reenacting And Reinterpreting an Era via Fantasy Manga (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sengupta, S., Hubbard, B., 2017. Truce That Trump Announced at G-20 Survives Its First Day in Southwestern Syria. New York Times A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Conrad, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Conrad, 2015; Deming and Seager, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Deming and Seager, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Ma et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood and Chemical Toxicology
AbbreviationFood Chem. Toxicol.
ISSN (print)0278-6915
ScopeFood Science
General Medicine

Other styles