How to format your references using the Food and Chemical Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food and Chemical Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Livio, M., 2011. Lost in translation: Mystery of the missing text solved. Nature 479, 171–173.
A journal article with 2 authors
De Yoreo, J.J., Dove, P.M., 2004. Materials science. Shaping crystals with biomolecules. Science 306, 1301–1302.
A journal article with 3 authors
Spinner, M., Westhoff, G., Gorb, S.N., 2014. Subdigital setae of chameleon feet: friction-enhancing microstructures for a wide range of substrate roughness. Sci. Rep. 4, 5481.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Liu, L., Liu, S., Chen, X., Li, C., Ling, J., Liu, X., Cai, Y., Wang, L., 2013. Switching molecular orientation of individual fullerene at room temperature. Sci. Rep. 3, 3062.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bitton, G., 2014. Microbiology of Drinking Water. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Smith, L.M., 2012. Families, Education and Giftedness: Case Studies in the Construction of High Achievement, Advances in Creativity and Giftedness. SensePublishers, Rotterdam.
A chapter in an edited book
Nauth, P., 2012. Goal Understanding and Self-generating Will for Autonomous Humanoid Robots, in: Hippe, Z.S., Kulikowski, J.L., Mroczek, T. (Eds.), Human – Computer Systems Interaction: Backgrounds and Applications 2: Part 2, Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 41–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food and Chemical Toxicology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2015. Pluto’s Surface Might Be Resting On An Ammonia-Water Slurry [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1991. Project on Standardization of Basic Financial Information Requirements of Central Agencies (No. 156239). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Berbery, M.L., 2010. Predictors of White adoptive parents’ cultural and racial socialization behaviors with their Asian adopted children (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, D., 1997. Behind the Velvet Rope. New York Times 711.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Livio, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (De Yoreo and Dove, 2004; Livio, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (De Yoreo and Dove, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood and Chemical Toxicology
AbbreviationFood Chem. Toxicol.
ISSN (print)0278-6915
ScopeFood Science
General Medicine

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