How to format your references using the Food and Chemical Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food and Chemical Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pither, J., 2007. Comment on “Dispersal limitations matter for microbial morphospecies.” Science 316, 1124; author reply 1124.
A journal article with 2 authors
van Ginneken, V.J., van den Thillart, G.E., 2000. Eel fat stores are enough to reach the Sargasso. Nature 403, 156–157.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ahn, K.H., Lookman, T., Bishop, A.R., 2004. Strain-induced metal-insulator phase coexistence in perovskite manganites. Nature 428, 401–404.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Shimada, A., Ueguchi-Tanaka, M., Nakatsu, T., Nakajima, M., Naoe, Y., Ohmiya, H., Kato, H., Matsuoka, M., 2008. Structural basis for gibberellin recognition by its receptor GID1. Nature 456, 520–523.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Biegelman, M.T., 2013. Faces of Fraud. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Forstmann, B.U., Wagenmakers, E.-J. (Eds.), 2015. An Introduction to Model-Based Cognitive Neuroscience. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Rae, I., 2014. Implementing the Right to Food in Uganda: Advances, Challenges and the Way Forward, in: Lambek, N.C.S., Claeys, P., Wong, A., Brilmayer, L. (Eds.), Rethinking Food Systems: Structural Challenges, New Strategies and the Law. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 75–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food and Chemical Toxicology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2015. Wormhole Illusion Causes Magnetic Field To Move Through Space Undetected [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1996. Security Weaknesses at IRS’ Cyberfile Data Center (No. AIMD-96-85R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCafferty, B., 2009. Chalk Talk (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon, J., Cacciola, S., 2016. Player’s Protest Revives a Spirit of Activism From the Days of Ali. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pither, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Pither, 2007; van Ginneken and van den Thillart, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (van Ginneken and van den Thillart, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Shimada et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood and Chemical Toxicology
AbbreviationFood Chem. Toxicol.
ISSN (print)0278-6915
ScopeFood Science
General Medicine

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