How to format your references using the Food and Chemical Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food and Chemical Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gewin, V., 2002. While industrial agrobiotech R&D falters, opportunities in plant biology in the public sector are growing. Nature 419, 4–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bodirsky, B.L., Popp, A., 2015. Sustainability: Australia at the crossroads. Nature 527, 40–41.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mayor, M., Lovis, C., Santos, N.C., 2014. Doppler spectroscopy as a path to the detection of Earth-like planets. Nature 513, 328–335.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mias, G.I., Chen, R., Zhang, Y., Sridhar, K., Sharon, D., Xiao, L., Im, H., Snyder, M.P., Greenberg, P.L., 2013. Specific plasma autoantibody reactivity in myelodysplastic syndromes. Sci. Rep. 3, 3311.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Recho, N., 2012. Fracture Mechanics and Crack Growth. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Clements, M.A. (ken), Bishop, A.J., Keitel, C., Kilpatrick, J., Leung, F.K.S. (Eds.), 2013. Third International Handbook of Mathematics Education, Springer International Handbooks of Education. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Danese, M., Lazzari, M., Murgante, B., 2009. Integrated Geological, Geomorphological and Geostatistical Analysis to Study Macroseismic Effects of 1980 Irpinian Earthquake in Urban Areas (Southern Italy), in: Gervasi, O., Taniar, D., Murgante, B., Laganà, A., Mun, Y., Gavrilova, M.L. (Eds.), Computational Science and Its Applications – ICCSA 2009: International Conference, Seoul, Korea, June 29-July 2, 2009, Proceedings, Part I, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 50–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food and Chemical Toxicology.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2015. Creepy Swarm Of Baby Crabs Crawl Over Man’s Hand [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Strong Leadership and Partnerships Needed to Address Risk of Major Disruptions (No. T-AIMD-98-266). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wen, J., 2012. Moving office document processing into the cloud (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B., 2017. Dominant So Far on Clay, Nadal Hits A Bump on the Road to Roland Garros. New York Times D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gewin, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Bodirsky and Popp, 2015; Gewin, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bodirsky and Popp, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Mias et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood and Chemical Toxicology
AbbreviationFood Chem. Toxicol.
ISSN (print)0278-6915
ScopeFood Science
General Medicine

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