How to format your references using the Food and Chemical Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food and Chemical Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dalibard, J., 2009. Journal club. A quantum-gas specialist learns about crystals from his own science. Nature 457, 639.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cockell, C.S., Stokes, M.D., 2004. Ecology: widespread colonization by polar hypoliths. Nature 431, 414.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meier, D.L., Koide, S., Uchida, Y., 2001. Magnetohydrodynamic production of relativistic jets. Science 291, 84–92.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sha, Z.D., Quek, S.S., Pei, Q.X., Liu, Z.S., Wang, T.J., Shenoy, V.B., Zhang, Y.W., 2014. Inverse pseudo Hall-Petch relation in polycrystalline graphene. Sci. Rep. 4, 5991.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Krysinski, T., Malburet, F., 2013. Mechanical Instability. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Grossi, E., Ravagnan, A. (Eds.), 2013. Cultura e salute: La partecipazione culturale come strumento per un nuovo welfare. Springer, Milano.
A chapter in an edited book
Genovese, E., Leonardi, A., Callegari, L., Angeretti, M.G., Albrizio, M., Spanò, E., Fugazzola, C., 2011. Major and Minor Pediatric Traumatic Musculotendinous Injuries, in: Martino, F., Defilippi, C., Caudana, R. (Eds.), Imaging of Pediatric Bone and Joint Trauma. Springer, Milano, pp. 69–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food and Chemical Toxicology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Beautiful Park Spends Half The Year Completely Underwater [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2007. Department of Energy: Oil and Natural Gas Research and Development Activities (No. GAO-08-190R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lotrecchiano, G.R., 2012. Social Mechanisms of Team Science: A Descriptive Case Study Using a Multilevel Systems Perspective Employing Reciprocating Structuration Theory (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson, M., 2017. Uma Thurman to Star On Broadway This Fall. New York Times C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dalibard, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Cockell and Stokes, 2004; Dalibard, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cockell and Stokes, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Sha et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood and Chemical Toxicology
AbbreviationFood Chem. Toxicol.
ISSN (print)0278-6915
ScopeFood Science
General Medicine

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