How to format your references using the Fly citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fly. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nakano A. Cell biology: Polarized transport in the Golgi apparatus. Nature 2015; 521:427–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
McKee CF, Tan JC. Massive star formation in 100,000 years from turbulent and pressurized molecular clouds. Nature 2002; 416:59–61.
A journal article with 3 authors
Freimund DL, Aflatooni K, Batelaan H. Observation of the Kapitza-Dirac effect. Nature 2001; 413:142–3.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Iber D, Clarkson J, Yudkin MD, Campbell ID. The mechanism of cell differentiation in Bacillus subtilis. Nature 2006; 441:371–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grous A. Fracture Mechanics 1. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Navard P, editor. The European Polysaccharide Network of Excellence (EPNOE): Research Initiatives and Results. Vienna: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Patterson G. A Historically Black High School Remains Intact. In: Noblit GW, editor. School Desegregation: Oral Histories toward Understanding the Effects of White Domination. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2015. page 63–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fly.

Blog post
Andrew D. Why It Is Useful To Understand The Role Of Genetics In Behaviour [Internet]. IFLScience2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Job Training Partnership Act: An Analysis of Support Cost Limits and Participant Characteristics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1985.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith GS. The relationship between legislative implementations and educator readiness in inclusive educational environments. 2008;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Harris G, Shear MD, Nixon R. Court Opinion Lets U.S. Start Ban on Travel. New York Times2017; :A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleFly
AbbreviationFly (Austin)
ISSN (print)1933-6934
ISSN (online)1933-6942
ScopeInsect Science

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