How to format your references using the Advances in Physiology Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Advances in Physiology Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
van den Heuvel EPJ. Astronomy. Pulsar magnetospheres and pulsar death. Science 312: 539–540, 2006.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zelzer E, Olsen BR. The genetic basis for skeletal diseases. Nature 423: 343–348, 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
Messenger S, Keller LP, Lauretta DS. Supernova olivine from cometary dust. Science 309: 737–741, 2005.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Coltman DW, O’Donoghue P, Jorgenson JT, Hogg JT, Strobeck C, Festa-Bianchet M. Undesirable evolutionary consequences of trophy hunting. Nature 426: 655–658, 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van der Heide P. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014.
An edited book
DeJaeghere JG, Josić J, McCleary KS, editors. Education and Youth Agency: Qualitative Case Studies in Global Contexts. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Joseph B. The Inverted Foot. In: Paediatric Orthopaedic Diagnosis: Asking the Right Questions, edited by Robb J, Loder RT, Torode I. New Delhi: Springer India, 2015, p. 45–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Advances in Physiology Education.

Blog post
Andrew D. Physicists Use Einstein’s ‘Spooky’ Entanglement To Invent Super-Sensitive Gravitational Wave Detector [Online]. IFLScience IFLScience: 2017. [30 Oct. 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Services: Better Dissemination and Oversight of DOT’s Guidance Could Lead to Improved Access for Limited English-Proficient Populations (Spanish Version). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tzillah A. The emissions of selected air pollutants from biodiesel fuel usage. University of Cincinnati: 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. Bipartisan Bill Poses Federal Control Over Puerto Rico’s Fiscal Affairs. New York Times: B5, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (2, 4).
This sentence cites four references (5–8).

About the journal

Full journal titleAdvances in Physiology Education
AbbreviationAdv. Physiol. Educ.
ISSN (print)1043-4046
ISSN (online)1522-1229
General Medicine

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