How to format your references using the Advances in Physiology Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Advances in Physiology Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carucci D. Know thine enemy. Nature 430: 944–945, 2004.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jaeger H, Haas H. Harnessing nonlinearity: predicting chaotic systems and saving energy in wireless communication. Science 304: 78–80, 2004.
A journal article with 3 authors
Van Dyck D, Jinschek JR, Chen F-R. “Big Bang” tomography as a new route to atomic-resolution electron tomography. Nature 486: 243–246, 2012.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhong Z, Wang D, Cui Y, Bockrath MW, Lieber CM. Nanowire crossbar arrays as address decoders for integrated nanosystems. Science 302: 1377–1379, 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Caferra R. Logic for Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2011.
An edited book
Bellardita L, Magnani T, Valdagni R, editors. Il tumore alla prostata: Paziente, familiari e medici: esperienze narrate. Milano: Springer, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Casas E, Chrysafinos K. A Review of Numerical Analysis for the Discretization of the Velocity Tracking Problem. In: Trends in Differential Equations and Applications, edited by Ortegón Gallego F, Redondo Neble MV, Rodríguez Galván JR. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, p. 51–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Advances in Physiology Education.

Blog post
Davis J. Endangered Ferrets Born From Insemination With 20-Year-Old Semen [Online]. IFLScience IFLScience: 2015. [30 Oct. 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Commercial Maritime Industry: Supplemental Information on Federal Assessments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sutherland CE. Positive deviance during organization change: Researchers’ social construction of expanded university goals. Pepperdine University: 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. Soul Food With a Secret. New York Times: NJ9, 2009.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (2, 4).
This sentence cites four references (2, 4, 6, 8).

About the journal

Full journal titleAdvances in Physiology Education
AbbreviationAdv. Physiol. Educ.
ISSN (print)1043-4046
ISSN (online)1522-1229
General Medicine

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