How to format your references using the IET Electric Power Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IET Electric Power Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lewis, R.: ‘A career at the museum’Nature, 2008, 451, (7175), p. 218.
A journal article with 2 authors
Furey, T.S., Sethupathy, P.: ‘Genetics. Genetics driving epigenetics’Science, 2013, 342, (6159), pp. 705–706.
A journal article with 3 authors
Haig, J., Nott, J., Reichart, G.-J.: ‘Australian tropical cyclone activity lower than at any time over the past 550-1,500 years’Nature, 2014, 505, (7485), pp. 667–671.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Karp, E.M., Eaton, T.R., Sànchez I Nogué, V., et al.: ‘Renewable acrylonitrile production’Science, 2017, 358, (6368), pp. 1307–1310.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lloret, J., Shulman, G., Love, R.M.: ‘Condition and Health Indicators of Exploited Marine Fishes’ (John Wiley & Sons, 2013)
An edited book
Gamble, A.: ‘Beginning Rails 4’ (Apress, 2013)
A chapter in an edited book
Hagen, S., Edwards, N., Wilcock, L., Kirschnick, J., Rolia, J.: ‘One Is Not Enough: A Hybrid Approach for IT Change Planning’, in Bartolini, C., Gaspary, L.P. (Eds.): ‘Integrated Management of Systems, Services, Processes and People in IT: 20th IFIP/IEEE International Workshop on Distributed Systems: Operations and Management, DSOM 2009, Venice, Italy, October 27-28, 2009. Proceedings’ (Springer, 2009), pp. 56–70

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IET Electric Power Applications.

Blog post
Hamilton, K.: ‘Fentanyl: Widely Used, Deadly When Abused’,, accessed October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: ‘Technology Transfer: Constraints Perceived by Federal Laboratory and Agency Officials’ (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1988)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Harris, A.N.: ‘Deadly force: Perceptions of police and exploration of strategies used by African American mothers to protect their sons’. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED, M.J.: ‘Buffett Bails Out a Troubled Canadian Mortgage Lender’New York Times, 2017, p. B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2, 4].
This sentence cites four references [2, 4, 6, 8].

About the journal

Full journal titleIET Electric Power Applications
ISSN (print)1751-8660
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering

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