How to format your references using the IET Electric Power Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IET Electric Power Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wickware, P.: ‘Next-generation biologists must straddle computation and biology’Nature, 2000, 404, (6778), pp. 683–684.
A journal article with 2 authors
Audétat, A., Keppler, H.: ‘Viscosity of fluids in subduction zones’Science, 2004, 303, (5657), pp. 513–516.
A journal article with 3 authors
Clevers, H., Loh, K.M., Nusse, R.: ‘Stem cell signaling. An integral program for tissue renewal and regeneration: Wnt signaling and stem cell control’Science, 2014, 346, (6205), p. 1248012.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Seal, R.P., Wang, X., Guan, Y., et al.: ‘Injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity requires C-low threshold mechanoreceptors’Nature, 2009, 462, (7273), pp. 651–655.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kyan, M., Muneesawang, P., Jarrah, K., Guan, L.: ‘Unsupervised Learning’ (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014)
An edited book
Mahlich, J.C., Pascha, W. (Eds.): ‘Innovation and Technology in Korea: Challenges of a Newly Advanced Economy’ (Physica-Verlag HD, 2007)
A chapter in an edited book
Andersen, M.L., D’Almeida, V., Ko, G.M., Martins, P.J.F., Tufik, S.: ‘Care and Maintenance of Laboratory Animals’, in Andersen, M.L., Tufik, S. (Eds.): ‘Rodent Model as Tools in Ethical Biomedical Research’ (Springer International Publishing, 2016), pp. 23–37

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IET Electric Power Applications.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: ‘Information Flows In Opposite Directions During Imagination And Reality’,, accessed October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: ‘Digests of Unpublished Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States, Vol. V, No. 3’ (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1988)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sindel, J.: ‘Vulnerability towards disordered eating in students registered in general education nutrition classes’. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S.: ‘Cadets Can’t Catch Cougars’New York Times, 1999, p. 811.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2, 4].
This sentence cites four references [2, 4, 6, 8].

About the journal

Full journal titleIET Electric Power Applications
ISSN (print)1751-8660
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering

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