How to format your references using the FlatChem citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for FlatChem. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. Jewkes, HIV/AIDS. Gender inequities must be addressed in HIV prevention, Science. 329 (2010) 145–147.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.B. Rivkin, L. Legendre, Biogenic carbon cycling in the upper ocean: effects of microbial respiration, Science. 291 (2001) 2398–2400.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Selmecki, A. Forche, J. Berman, Aneuploidy and isochromosome formation in drug-resistant Candida albicans, Science. 313 (2006) 367–370.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
G. Modugno, G. Ferrari, G. Roati, R.J. Brecha, A. Simoni, M. Inguscio, Bose-Einstein condensation of potassium atoms by sympathetic cooling, Science. 294 (2001) 1320–1322.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Korst, V. Pronk, Multimedia Storage and Retrieval, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2006.
An edited book
V.V. Bellur, ed., The 1980’s: A Decade of Marketing Challenges: Proceedings of the 1981 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Z. Argenyi, C.H. Jokinen, Benign Cutaneous Neoplasms with Peripheral Nerve Differentiation, in: C.H. Jokinen (Ed.), Cutaneous Neural Neoplasms: A Practical Guide, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, 2011: pp. 37–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for FlatChem.

Blog post
J. Fang, Implantable Scaffold Regenerates Lost Bone, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, VA/DOD Federal Health Care Center: Costly Information Technology Delays Continue and Evaluation Plan Lacking, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T. Joshi, Understanding gold nanoisland formation using transport measurement, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Feeney, Sophisticated Takeout, New York Times. (2008) NJ16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFlatChem
ISSN (print)2452-2627

Other styles