How to format your references using the FlatChem citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for FlatChem. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
F.D. Urnov, Biological techniques: Edit the genome to understand it, Nature. 513 (2014) 40–41.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.G.L. van den Heuvel, C. Dekker, Motor proteins at work for nanotechnology, Science. 317 (2007) 333–336.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Wagemaker, A.P.M. Kentgens, F.M. Mulder, Equilibrium lithium transport between nanocrystalline phases in intercalated TiO(2) anatase, Nature. 418 (2002) 397–399.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Liu, C. Li, J. Gao, W. Wang, L. Huang, X. Guo, B. Li, J. Wang, Comparative characterization of two intracellular Ca2+-release channels from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6702.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D.R. Derryberry, Basic Data Analysis for Time Series with R, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
R. Gera, S. Hedetniemi, C. Larson, eds., Graph Theory: Favorite Conjectures and Open Problems - 1, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Y. Friedman, T. Scarr, The algebraic structure of homogeneous balls, in: T. Scarr (Ed.), Physical Applications of Homogeneous Balls, Birkhäuser, Boston, MA, 2005: pp. 195–236.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for FlatChem.

Blog post
S. Luntz, How to Win At Rock, Paper, Scissors With Science, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Pell Grants for Prison Inmates, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
F.B. Joseph, Adsorption and Transformation of Selenium from Elemental Selenium Nanoparticles by Pseudomonas fuscovaginae, Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Saslow, Stony Brook Medical Center Names Chief Executive, New York Times. (2006) 14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFlatChem
ISSN (print)2452-2627

Other styles