How to format your references using the Harmful Algae citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Harmful Algae. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Miller, D.A.B., 2015. Applied Optics. Sorting out light. Science 347, 1423–1424.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhou, Z., Bai, Y., 2007. Structural biology: analysis of protein-folding cooperativity. Nature 445, E16-7; discussion E17-8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Faehnle, C.R., Walleshauser, J., Joshua-Tor, L., 2014. Mechanism of Dis3l2 substrate recognition in the Lin28-let-7 pathway. Nature 514, 252–256.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Turner, A., Beales, J., Faure, S., Dunford, R.P., Laurie, D.A., 2005. The pseudo-response regulator Ppd-H1 provides adaptation to photoperiod in barley. Science 310, 1031–1034.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Köhler, A., Bässler, H., 2015. Electronic Processes in Organic Semiconductors. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Schrader, J., Bohlmann, J. (Eds.), 2015. Biotechnology of Isoprenoids, Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Lee, C.-S., Wang, M.-H., Hung, P.-H., Kuo, Y.-L., Wang, H.-M., Lin, B.-H., 2013. Apply Fuzzy Markup Language to ASAP Assessment System, in: Acampora, G., Loia, V., Lee, C.-S., Wang, M.-H. (Eds.), On the Power of Fuzzy Markup Language, Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 73–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Harmful Algae.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. 85,000 Endangered Antelopes Die Mysteriously In Just One Day [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005. Transportation Services: Better Dissemination and Oversight of DOT’s Guidance Could Lead to Improved Access for Limited English-Proficient Populations (Vietnamese Version) (No. GAO-06-187). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Walker, D., 2017. University Research Adminstrators’ Perception of Incivility and the Relationship to Employee Engagement (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M., 2017. Philip Gossett, Scholar, 75; Revived Lost Opera Scores. New York Times B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Miller, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Miller, 2015; Zhou and Bai, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhou and Bai, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Turner et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleHarmful Algae
AbbreviationHarmful Algae
ISSN (print)1568-9883
ScopeAquatic Science
Plant Science

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