How to format your references using the Harmful Algae citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Harmful Algae. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zaanen, J., 2014. High-temperature superconductivity: electron mirages in an iron salt. Nature 515, 205–206.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhong, W., Sternberg, P.W., 2006. Genome-wide prediction of C. elegans genetic interactions. Science 311, 1481–1484.
A journal article with 3 authors
Spiliotis, E.T., Kinoshita, M., Nelson, W.J., 2005. A mitotic septin scaffold required for Mammalian chromosome congression and segregation. Science 307, 1781–1785.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wu, G.A., Terol, J., Ibanez, V., López-García, A., Pérez-Román, E., Borredá, C., Domingo, C., Tadeo, F.R., Carbonell-Caballero, J., Alonso, R., Curk, F., Du, D., Ollitrault, P., Roose, M.L., Dopazo, J., Gmitter, F.G., Rokhsar, D.S., Talon, M., 2018. Genomics of the origin and evolution of Citrus. Nature 554, 311–316.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vincoli, J.W., 2014. Basic Guide to System Safety. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Smith, L.M., 2012. Families, Education and Giftedness: Case Studies in the Construction of High Achievement, Advances in Creativity and Giftedness. SensePublishers, Rotterdam.
A chapter in an edited book
Abracham, A., 2011. Quo Vadis Hybrid Intelligent Systems: New Trends and Approaches, in: Corchado, E., Kurzyński, M., Woźniak, M. (Eds.), Hybrid Artificial Intelligent Systems: 6th International Conference, HAIS 2011, Wroclaw, Poland, May 23-25, 2011, Proceedings, Part I, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 30–30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Harmful Algae.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Direct Brain-To-Brain Communication Used in Humans [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. Aviation Manufacturing: Status of FAA’s Efforts to Improve Certification and Regulatory Consistency (No. GAO-14-829T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bornmann, J.W., 2009. Becoming soldiers: Army Basic Training and the negotiation of identity (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B., 2017. David Lynch: The Art Life. New York Times C10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zaanen, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Zaanen, 2014; Zhong and Sternberg, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhong and Sternberg, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Wu et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleHarmful Algae
AbbreviationHarmful Algae
ISSN (print)1568-9883
ScopeAquatic Science
Plant Science

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