How to format your references using the Harmful Algae citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Harmful Algae. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Collins, J.J., 2009. Journal club. A bioengineer gets schooled by Escherichia coli. Nature 460, 155.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hidalgo, C., Donoso, P., 2011. Cell signaling. Getting to the heart of mechanotransduction. Science 333, 1388–1390.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jakobsen, L., Ratcliffe, J.M., Surlykke, A., 2013. Convergent acoustic field of view in echolocating bats. Nature 493, 93–96.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mahara, Y., Ohta, T., Ogawa, H., Kumata, A., 2014. Atmospheric direct uptake and long-term fate of radiocesium in trees after the Fukushima nuclear accident. Sci. Rep. 4, 7121.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kharmanda, G., El Hami, A., 2016. Reliability in Biomechanics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Bertelsen, O.W., Ciolfi, L., Grasso, M.A., Papadopoulos, G.A. (Eds.), 2013. ECSCW 2013: Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 21-25 September 2013, Paphos, Cyprus. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
de Luca, A., D’Alessandro, F., 2013. Equivalenza di automi, in: D’Alessandro, F. (Ed.), Teoria Degli Automi Finiti, UNITEXT. Springer, Milano, pp. 179–200.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Harmful Algae.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. This Summer’s Arctic Sea Ice Extent Is The Second Lowest On Record [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2012. Slot-Controlled Airports: FAA’s Rules Could Be Improved to Enhance Competition and Use of Available Capacity (No. GAO-12-902). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tu, K.-H., 2017. Structural and Functional Analysis of Apolipoprotein E3/E4 Hybrid (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K., 2001. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Recovering The Kursk. New York Times A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Collins, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Collins, 2009; Hidalgo and Donoso, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hidalgo and Donoso, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Mahara et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleHarmful Algae
AbbreviationHarmful Algae
ISSN (print)1568-9883
ScopeAquatic Science
Plant Science

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