How to format your references using the Harmful Algae citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Harmful Algae. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Watanabe, S., 2015. Slow or fast? A tale of synaptic vesicle recycling. Science 350, 46–47.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boesz, C., Lloyd, N., 2008. Collaborations: investigating international misconduct. Nature 452, 686–687.
A journal article with 3 authors
Winter, Y., López, J., Von Helversen, O., 2003. Ultraviolet vision in a bat. Nature 425, 612–614.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Obmolova, G., Ban, C., Hsieh, P., Yang, W., 2000. Crystal structures of mismatch repair protein MutS and its complex with a substrate DNA. Nature 407, 703–710.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bhattacharyya, A.K., 2005. Phased Array Antennas. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Göbel, S., Malkewitz, R., Iurgel, I. (Eds.), 2006. Technologies for Interactive Digital Storytelling and Entertainment: Third International Conference, TIDSE 2006, Darmstadt, Germany, December 4-6, 2006. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Abidi, K., Xu, J.-X., 2015. Discrete-Time Adaptive Posicast Control, in: Xu, J.-X. (Ed.), Advanced Discrete-Time Control: Designs and Applications, Studies in Systems, Decision and Control. Springer, Singapore, pp. 79–107.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Harmful Algae.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Nigeria Celebrates One Year Without Polio Case [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2010. Commercial Aviation: Better Information about Airline-Imposed Fees and the Refundability of Government-Imposed Taxes and Fees Could Benefit Consumers (No. GAO-10-885T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brothers, J., 2009. Nonparametric regression using wavelet transformations and noise reduction in audio signals (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rawlence, B., 2017. The First Rule of Book Club Is . . . New York Times BR25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Watanabe, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Boesz and Lloyd, 2008; Watanabe, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boesz and Lloyd, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Obmolova et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleHarmful Algae
AbbreviationHarmful Algae
ISSN (print)1568-9883
ScopeAquatic Science
Plant Science

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