How to format your references using the Harmful Algae citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Harmful Algae. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Garnero, E.J., 2004. Geophysics. A new paradigm for Earth’s core-mantle boundary. Science 304, 834–836.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cooper, A., Stringer, C.B., 2013. Paleontology. Did the Denisovans cross Wallace’s Line? Science 342, 321–323.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thorpe, S.K.S., Holder, R.L., Crompton, R.H., 2007. Origin of human bipedalism as an adaptation for locomotion on flexible branches. Science 316, 1328–1331.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chodavarapu, R.K., Feng, S., Bernatavichute, Y.V., Chen, P.-Y., Stroud, H., Yu, Y., Hetzel, J.A., Kuo, F., Kim, J., Cokus, S.J., Casero, D., Bernal, M., Huijser, P., Clark, A.T., Krämer, U., Merchant, S.S., Zhang, X., Jacobsen, S.E., Pellegrini, M., 2010. Relationship between nucleosome positioning and DNA methylation. Nature 466, 388–392.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Palmquist, S.R., 2015. Comprehensive Commentary on Kant’s Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Weissenberger, S., 2015. Adaptation to Climate Change and Sea Level Rise: The Case Study of Coastal Communities in New Brunswick, Canada, SpringerBriefs in Environmental Science. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Maher, M.J., 2016. Resistance to Corruption of General Strategic Argumentation, in: Baldoni, M., Chopra, A.K., Son, T.C., Hirayama, K., Torroni, P. (Eds.), PRIMA 2016: Principles and Practice of Multi-Agent Systems: 19th International Conference, Phuket, Thailand, August 22-26, 2016, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 61–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Harmful Algae.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. Say Hello To The Earth’s Nearest Exoplanet Neighbour: Proxima Centauri B [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1990. Test and Evaluation: DOD’s Fiscal Year 1989 Test Resource Budget (No. NSIAD-90-177FS). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Viator, L., 2017. Thanatos (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Belson, K., 2017. N.F.L. Looks For Daylight Through Anthem Flap. New York Times B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Garnero, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Cooper and Stringer, 2013; Garnero, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cooper and Stringer, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Chodavarapu et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleHarmful Algae
AbbreviationHarmful Algae
ISSN (print)1568-9883
ScopeAquatic Science
Plant Science

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