How to format your references using the Harmful Algae citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Harmful Algae. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ledford, H., 2015. Epigenetics: The genome unwrapped. Nature 528, S12-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cimpian, A., Leslie, S.-J., 2015. WOMEN IN SCIENCE. Response to Comment on “Expectations of brilliance underlie gender distributions across academic disciplines.” Science 349, 391.
A journal article with 3 authors
McGinty, R.K., Henrici, R.C., Tan, S., 2014. Crystal structure of the PRC1 ubiquitylation module bound to the nucleosome. Nature 514, 591–596.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Palacios, I.M., Gatfield, D., St Johnston, D., Izaurralde, E., 2004. An eIF4AIII-containing complex required for mRNA localization and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Nature 427, 753–757.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
MacGowan, C., 2011. The Twentieth-Century American Fiction Handbook. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Dawson, D.A., 2014. Spatial Fleming-Viot Models with Selection and Mutation, Lecture Notes in Mathematics. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Livesey, R., 2016. Remembering Radicalism on the Midlands Turnpike: George Eliot, Felix Holt, and William Cobbett, in: Bristow, J., McDonagh, J. (Eds.), Nineteenth-Century Radical Traditions. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp. 85–112.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Harmful Algae.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Bedbug Trap On The Way [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. DOD Education Benefits: Action Is Needed to Ensure Evaluations of Postsecondary Schools Are Useful (No. GAO-14-855). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Berbery, M.L., 2010. Predictors of White adoptive parents’ cultural and racial socialization behaviors with their Asian adopted children (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2007. Supreme Court Ruling Limits State Control of Big Banks. New York Times C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ledford, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Cimpian and Leslie, 2015; Ledford, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cimpian and Leslie, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Palacios et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleHarmful Algae
AbbreviationHarmful Algae
ISSN (print)1568-9883
ScopeAquatic Science
Plant Science

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