How to format your references using the Fisterra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fisterra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barbash DA. Comment on “A test of the snowball theory for the rate of evolution of hybrid incompatibilities.” Science. 2011 Sep 16;333(6049):1576; author reply 1576.
A journal article with 2 authors
Byrne S, Ingersoll AP. A sublimation model for martian south polar ice features. Science. 2003 Feb 14;299(5609):1051–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Morais-Cabral JH, Zhou Y, MacKinnon R. Energetic optimization of ion conduction rate by the K+ selectivity filter. Nature. 2001 Nov 1;414(6859):37–42.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhang W, Choi DS, Nguyen YH, Chang J, Qin L. Studying cancer stem cell dynamics on PDMS surfaces for microfluidics device design. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2332.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pines JM, Carpenter CR, Raja AS, Schuur JD. Evidence-Based Emergency Care. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Rothman J, editor. From Identity-Based Conflict to Identity-Based Cooperation: The ARIA Approach in Theory and Practice. New York, NY: Springer; 2012. (Peace Psychology Book Series).
A chapter in an edited book
Fitz D, Jakschitz T, Rode BM. Salt-Induced Peptide Formation in Chemical Evolution: Building Blocks Before RNA – Potential of Peptide Splicing Reactions. In: Egel R, Lankenau DH, Mulkidjanian AY, editors. Origins of Life: The Primal Self-Organization. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 109–27.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fisterra.

Blog post
Andrew D. What 2,000 Calories Looks Like At Every Major Fast-Food Chain [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Changes in Selected Broadcast and Cable Television Reporting Requirements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Dec. Report No.: RCED-89-24.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rutherford C. The education of Dr. Khalil Totah [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Down the Memory Hole. New York Times. 2009 Oct 2;A31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Barbash 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Byrne and Ingersoll 2003; Barbash 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Byrne and Ingersoll 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFisterra
ISSN (print)2444-9164

Other styles