How to format your references using the Fisterra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fisterra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lang T. Advancing global health research through digital technology and sharing data. Science. 2011 Feb 11;331(6018):714–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bokov K, Steinberg SV. A hierarchical model for evolution of 23S ribosomal RNA. Nature. 2009 Feb 19;457(7232):977–80.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jan CH, Williams CC, Weissman JS. LOCAL TRANSLATION. Response to Comment on “Principles of ER cotranslational translocation revealed by proximity-specific ribosome profiling.” Science. 2015 Jun 12;348(6240):1217.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mattingley JB, Rich AN, Yelland G, Bradshaw JL. Unconscious priming eliminates automatic binding of colour and alphanumeric form in synaesthesia. Nature. 2001 Mar 29;410(6828):580–2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fickelscherer RJ, Chester DL. Optimal Automated Process Fault Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Tuyls K, Hoen PJ, Verbeeck K, Sen S, editors. Learning and Adaption in Multi-Agent Systems: First International Workshop, LAMAS 2005, Utrecht, The Netherlands, July 25, 2005, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 3898).
A chapter in an edited book
Gudehus T, Kotzab H. Strategies of Logistics. In: Kotzab H, editor. Comprehensive Logistics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 101–27.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fisterra.

Blog post
Carpineti C. What The Hell Is This Bizarre Thing? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highway Safety: Monitoring Practices To Show Compliance With Speed Limits Should Be Reexamined. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Mar. Report No.: RCED-88-93BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hammarsten C. Decorated Heegaard Diagrams and Combinatorial Heegaard Floer Homology [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum MM, Herrman J. Breitbart Gains Voice in White House. New York Times. 2016 Nov 14;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lang 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Bokov and Steinberg 2009; Lang 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bokov and Steinberg 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Mattingley et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleFisterra
ISSN (print)2444-9164

Other styles