How to format your references using the Fisterra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fisterra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pickett G. Superfluidity. A new twist to an old story. Nature. 2000 Mar 30;404(6777):450–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Terman JR, Kolodkin AL. Nervy links protein kinase a to plexin-mediated semaphorin repulsion. Science. 2004 Feb 20;303(5661):1204–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ehebauer M, Hayward P, Arias AM. Notch, a universal arbiter of cell fate decisions. Science. 2006 Dec 1;314(5804):1414–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Himanen JP, Rajashankar KR, Lackmann M, Cowan CA, Henkemeyer M, Nikolov DB. Crystal structure of an Eph receptor-ephrin complex. Nature. 2001;414(6866):933–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moskowitz HR, Porretta S, Silcher M. Concept Research in Food Product Design and Development. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing; 2008.
An edited book
Civelli O, Zhou Q-Y, editors. Orphan G Protein-Coupled Receptors and Novel Neuropeptides. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. (Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation; vol. 46).
A chapter in an edited book
Sekiya F, Sugimoto A. Discrete Polynomial Curve Fitting to Noisy Data. In: Barneva RP, Brimkov VE, Aggarwal JK, editors. Combinatorial Image Analaysis: 15th International Workshop, IWCIA 2012, Austin, TX, USA, November 28-30, 2012 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 59–74. (Hutchison D, Kanade T, Kittler J, Kleinberg JM, Mattern F, Mitchell JC, et al., editors. Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fisterra.

Blog post
Davis J. Invasive Asian Hornets Arrive On UK Shores [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Analysis of Travel Activities of Certain Regulatory Agency Commissioners During 1971-75. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976 Oct. Report No.: CED-76-155.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fu J. Tartuffe Lab: A developing work [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Alvarez L, Santora M. 25 Years Later, the Hard Lessons of Hurricane Andrew Still Guide Florida. New York Times. 2017 Sep 6;A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pickett 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Pickett 2000; Terman and Kolodkin 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Terman and Kolodkin 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Himanen et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleFisterra
ISSN (print)2444-9164

Other styles