How to format your references using the Fisterra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fisterra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ricci L. History of science: Dante’s insight into galilean invariance. Nature. 2005 Apr 7;434(7034):717.
A journal article with 2 authors
Druzd D, Scheiermann C. Immunology. Some monocytes got rhythm. Science. 2013 Sep 27;341(6153):1462–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yamashita YM, Jones DL, Fuller MT. Orientation of asymmetric stem cell division by the APC tumor suppressor and centrosome. Science. 2003 Sep 12;301(5639):1547–50.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tomasello R, Martinez E, Zivieri R, Torres L, Carpentieri M, Finocchio G. A strategy for the design of skyrmion racetrack memories. Sci Rep. 2014 Oct 29;4:6784.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Razik H. Handbook of Asynchronous Machine with Variable Speed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Margottini C, Canuti P, Sassa K, editors. Landslide Science and Practice: Volume 5: Complex Environment. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Oquendo F, Leite J, Batista T. Specifying the Structure of Software Architectures. In: Leite J, Batista T, editors. Software Architecture in Action: Designing and Executing Architectural Models with SysADL Grounded on the OMG SysML Standard. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 37–64. (Undergraduate Topics in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fisterra.

Blog post
Hale T. 100,000 Flying Foxes Are Causing Chaos In A Small Australian Town. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Examination Into the Manner in Which the Office of Education Is Administering the Teacher Corps Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1971 Mar. Report No.: 093028.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wellman TE. Employment Discrimination against Military Spouses: Illegal Contrary to Popular Belief and Practice [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J. Was That a Presidential Debate or a Pitch for an Edgy Trump Channel? New York Times. 2016 Oct 20;A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ricci 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Ricci 2005; Druzd and Scheiermann 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Druzd and Scheiermann 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Tomasello et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFisterra
ISSN (print)2444-9164

Other styles