How to format your references using the Fishes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fishes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bondi, H. Obituary: Thomas Gold (1920-2004). Nature 2004, 430, 415.
A journal article with 2 authors
Watmough, S.A.; Dillon, P.J. Mycorrhizal Weathering in Base-Poor Forests. Nature 2003, 423, 823–824; discussion 824.
A journal article with 3 authors
Baldwin, M.P.; Dameris, M.; Shepherd, T.G. Atmosphere. How Will the Stratosphere Affect Climate Change? Science 2007, 316, 1576–1577.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yao, Q.; Luo, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yu, Y.; Zhang, C.; Xie, J.; Lee, J.Y. Assembly of Nanoions via Electrostatic Interactions: Ion-like Behavior of Charged Noble Metal Nanoclusters. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 3848.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Garduno Barrera, D.; Diaz, M. Communicating Systems with UML 2; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9781118602201.
An edited book
Grasping in Robotics; Carbone, G., Ed.; Mechanisms and Machine Science; Springer: London, 2013; Vol. 10; ISBN 9781447146636.
A chapter in an edited book
Popescu-Zeletin, R.; Radusch, I.; Rigani, M.A. Information in the Vehicular Network. In Vehicular-2-X Communication: State-of-the-Art and Research in Mobile Vehicular Ad hoc Networks; Radusch, I., Rigani, M.A., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010; pp. 47–66 ISBN 9783540771425.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fishes.

Blog post
Hale, T. Mysterious Metal Object Crash Lands At A Jade Mine In Myanmar Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Information Technology: Census Bureau Needs to Improve Its Risk Management of Decennial Systems; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2007;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen, J.R. Staging Vietnamese America: Music and the Performance of Vietnamese American Identities. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University: Bloomington, IN, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller, B. Police Mourn Slain Officer, as Do the Bronx Residents She Served. New York Times 2017, A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFishes
ISSN (online)2410-3888

Other styles