How to format your references using the Fishes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fishes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Aldiss, B. Cognitive Ability and the Light Bulb. Nature 2000, 403, 253.
A journal article with 2 authors
Guigó, R.; Valcárcel, J. RNA. Prescribing Splicing. Science 2015, 347, 124–125.
A journal article with 3 authors
Amorisco, N.C.; Evans, N.W.; van de Ven, G. The Remnant of a Merger between Two Dwarf Galaxies in Andromeda II. Nature 2014, 507, 335–337.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kaltenboeck, G.; Harris, T.; Sun, K.; Tran, T.; Chang, G.; Schramm, J.P.; Demetriou, M.D.; Johnson, W.L. Accessing Thermoplastic Processing Windows in Metallic Glasses Using Rapid Capacitive Discharge. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6441.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zack, G.M. Financial Statement Fraud; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2012; ISBN 9781118527436.
An edited book
Respiratory Disease and Its Management; McLuckie, A., Ed.; Competency-Based Critical Care; Springer: London, 2009; ISBN 9781848820944.
A chapter in an edited book
Hankinson-Nelson, L. Feminist and Non-feminist Philosophy of Biology: Parallels, Differences, and Prospects for Future Engagements. In Meta-Philosophical Reflection on Feminist Philosophies of Science; Amoretti, M.C., Vassallo, N., Eds.; Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 55–74 ISBN 9783319263465.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fishes.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Stunning Photos Mix Earth’s Aurora With Bioluminescent Seas In Tasmania Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office LOCAL Television Act: Status of Spending for Fiscal Year 2005; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2006;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Woodworth, J.W. Secure Semantic Search over Encrypted Big Data in the Cloud. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana: Lafayette, LA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W. Steps Toward Settling Puerto Rico’s Debt. New York Times 2016, B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFishes
ISSN (online)2410-3888

Other styles