How to format your references using the Fishes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fishes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nadis, S. Science for art’s sake. Nature 2000, 407, 668–670.
A journal article with 2 authors
Johnson, G.L.; Lapadat, R. Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediated by ERK, JNK, and p38 protein kinases. Science 2002, 298, 1911–1912.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schenk, P.; Matsuyama, I.; Nimmo, F. True polar wander on Europa from global-scale small-circle depressions. Nature 2008, 453, 368–371.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yu, Z.; Yang, J.; Amalfitano, S.; Yu, X.; Liu, L. Effects of water stratification and mixing on microbial community structure in a subtropical deep reservoir. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5821.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kasper, S.; Montgomery, S. Treatment-resistant Depression; John Wiley & Sons: Oxford, 2013; ISBN 9781118556719.
An edited book
Ryan’s Ballistic Trauma: A Practical Guide; Brooks, A.J., Clasper, J., Midwinter, M., Hodgetts, T.J., Mahoney, P.F., Eds.; Springer: London, 2011; ISBN 9781848821231.
A chapter in an edited book
Broersen, J. A stit Logic Analysis of Morally Lucky and Legally Lucky Action Outcomes. In Nuel Belnap on Indeterminism and Free Action; Müller, T., Ed.; Outstanding Contributions to Logic; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; pp. 75–98 ISBN 9783319017532.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fishes.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Improved Data Set Shows No Global Warming ‘Hiatus’ (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Information Technology: DOD Needs to Leverage Lessons Learned from Its Outsourcing Projects; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2003;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Prather, M.R. Pink, blues, blacks, and the Union Jack: Mod’s reinterpretation of Britishness, 1962-1964. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dorman, J.L. Crossing the River From ‘Midnight’ to Freedom. New York Times 2017, TR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFishes
ISSN (online)2410-3888

Other styles