How to format your references using the Fishes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fishes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jayaraman, K.S. Break with tradition. Nature 2006, 442, 342–343.
A journal article with 2 authors
Marks, C.O.; Muller-Landau, H.C. Comment on “From plant traits to plant communities: a statistical mechanistic approach to biodiversity.” Science 2007, 316, 1425; author reply 1425.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huang, J.; Lesser, C.F.; Lory, S. The essential role of the CopN protein in Chlamydia pneumoniae intracellular growth. Nature 2008, 456, 112–115.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yamashita, A.; Liu, S.; Woltjen, K.; Thomas, B.; Meng, G.; Hotta, A.; Takahashi, K.; Ellis, J.; Yamanaka, S.; Rancourt, D.E. Cartilage tissue engineering identifies abnormal human induced pluripotent stem cells. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1978.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pompian, M.M. Advising Ultra-Affluent Clients and Family Offices; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2009; ISBN 9781118267851.
An edited book
Enhancing the City: New Perspectives for Tourism and Leisure; Maciocco, G., Serreli, S., Eds.; Urban and Landscape Perspectives; 1st ed.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2009; Vol. 6; ISBN 9789048124183.
A chapter in an edited book
Choi, Y.-K.; Kim, C.-H.; Ahn, J.-H.; Kim, J.-Y.; Kim, S. Dielectric Detection Using Biochemical Assays. In Point-of-Care Diagnostics on a Chip; Issadore, D., Westervelt, R.M., Eds.; Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; pp. 97–123 ISBN 9783642292675.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fishes.

Blog post
Fang, J. 240-Million-Year-Old “Grandfather Turtle” Was Just Starting to Have a Shell Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Weather Satellites: User Views on the Consequences of Eliminating a Civilian Polar Orbiter; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1986;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eggleston, B.P. An Investigation of the Difference in Student Achievement during the Middle School Transition Years. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University: St. Charles, MO, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. Some Merchants Tire of Going Hollywood. New York Times 2002, 145.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFishes
ISSN (online)2410-3888

Other styles