How to format your references using the Fishes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fishes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shore, B. Obituary: Sir Raymond Firth (1901-2002). Nature 2002, 416, 384.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hoppler, S.; Wheeler, G.N. DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY. It’s about Time for Neural Crest. Science 2015, 348, 1316–1317.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smallman, H.S.; MacLeod, D.I.; Doyle, P. Vision. Realignment of Cones after Cataract Removal. Nature 2001, 412, 604–605.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mann, M.E.; Woodruff, J.D.; Donnelly, J.P.; Zhang, Z. Atlantic Hurricanes and Climate over the Past 1,500 Years. Nature 2009, 460, 880–883.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bachmutsky, A. System Design for Telecommunication Gateways; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2010; ISBN 9780470710746.
An edited book
Sickle Cell Anemia: From Basic Science to Clinical Practice; Costa, F.F., Conran, N., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319067124.
A chapter in an edited book
Flesca, S.; Furfaro, F.; Parisi, F. Consistent Answers to Aggregate Queries. In Repairing and Querying Databases under Aggregate Constraints; Furfaro, F., Parisi, F., Eds.; SpringerBriefs in Computer Science; Springer: New York, NY, 2011; pp. 47–54 ISBN 9781461416401.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fishes.

Blog post
Davis, J. How Did Carnivorous Plants Evolve Their Taste For Meat? Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Rail Transportation: Federal Railroad Administration’s New Approach to Railroad Safety; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1997;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Doddick, S. Noncontact 2D Plethysmography: A Non-Invasive Technique for Monitoring Dynamic Trends in a Respiratory System. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W.; Story, L. U.S. Inquiry Said to Focus On a Fund In California. New York Times 2011, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFishes
ISSN (online)2410-3888

Other styles