How to format your references using the Fishes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fishes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
de Boer, Y. Copenhagen Shows We Need Caution in Cancún. Nature 2010, 468, 477.
A journal article with 2 authors
Eberly, J.H.; Yu, T. Physics. The End of an Entanglement. Science 2007, 316, 555–557.
A journal article with 3 authors
London, A.J.; Kimmelman, J.; Carlisle, B. Research Ethics. Rethinking Research Ethics: The Case of Postmarketing Trials. Science 2012, 336, 544–545.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fuentes-Prior, P.; Iwanaga, Y.; Huber, R.; Pagila, R.; Rumennik, G.; Seto, M.; Morser, J.; Light, D.R.; Bode, W. Structural Basis for the Anticoagulant Activity of the Thrombin-Thrombomodulin Complex. Nature 2000, 404, 518–525.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stratton, J.A. Electromagnetic Theory; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2015; ISBN 9781119134640.
An edited book
Interface Oral Health Science 2007: Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium for Interface Oral Health Science, Held in Sendai, Japan, Between 18 and 19 February, 2007; Watanabe, M., Okuno, O., Sasaki, K., Takahashi, N., Suzuki, O., Takada, H., Eds.; Springer Japan: Tokyo, 2007; ISBN 9784431766896.
A chapter in an edited book
Ryan, P.Y.A. The Computer Ate My Vote. In Formal Methods: State of the Art and New Directions; Boca, P., Bowen, J.P., Siddiqi, J., Eds.; Springer: London, 2010; pp. 147–184 ISBN 9781848827356.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fishes.

Blog post
Davis, J. Men Conceived Using IVF Have Increased Risk Of Fertility Problems Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Troops to Teachers: Program Helped Address Teacher Shortages; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2001;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Al khuwaildi, H.A. Green Techniques in the Healthcare System. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burfoot, A.; Hirsch, G.A. The Honorable Clan Of the Long-Distance Runner. New York Times 2012, SP11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFishes
ISSN (online)2410-3888

Other styles