How to format your references using the LWT citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for LWT. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hughes, V. (2011). Microenvironment: Neighbourhood watch. Nature, 480(7377), S48-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Colburn, K. A., & Johnson, P. R. S. (2003). Public health. Air pollution concerns not changed by S-PLUS flaw. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5607), 665–666.
A journal article with 3 authors
Khor, B., Gardet, A., & Xavier, R. J. (2011). Genetics and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Nature, 474(7351), 307–317.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Syassen, N., Bauer, D. M., Lettner, M., Volz, T., Dietze, D., García-Ripoll, J. J., Cirac, J. I., Rempe, G., & Dürr, S. (2008). Strong dissipation inhibits losses and induces correlations in cold molecular gases. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5881), 1329–1331.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Möller, G. (2013). Geotechnik. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Bhamidimarri, R., & Liu, A. (Eds.). (2016). Engineering and Enterprise: Inspiring Innovation (1st ed. 2016). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Grinin, L., & Korotayev, A. (2015). The Great Convergence and Globalization: How Former Colonies Became the World Economic Locomotives. In A. Korotayev (Ed.), Great Divergence and Great Convergence: A Global Perspective (pp. 115–158). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for LWT.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, September 22). Antifreeze in Antarctic Fish Also Causes Ice Crystal Build-Up. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Social Security Administration: Software Development Process Improvements Started But Work Remains (AIMD-98-39). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Britt, C. A. (2012). Dying in America: A historical analysis of physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1992, September 3). THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; Days After “Final” Word on Draft, Clinton Faces Renewed Questions. New York Times, A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hughes, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Colburn & Johnson, 2003; Hughes, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Colburn & Johnson, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Khor et al., 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Syassen et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleLWT
AbbreviationLebenson. Wiss. Technol.
ISSN (print)0023-6438
ScopeFood Science

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