How to format your references using the LWT citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for LWT. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Joiner, S. (2000). OPTICS: The Internet of Tomorrow. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5498), 1907–1908.
A journal article with 2 authors
Selosse, M.-A., & Rousset, F. (2011). Evolution. The plant-fungal marketplace. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6044), 828–829.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reznick, D. N., Mateos, M., & Springer, M. S. (2002). Independent origins and rapid evolution of the placenta in the fish genus Poeciliopsis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5595), 1018–1020.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Shrestha, V. R., Lee, S.-S., Kim, E.-S., & Choi, D.-Y. (2014). Non-iridescent transmissive structural color filter featuring highly efficient transmission and high excitation purity. Scientific Reports, 4, 4921.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Perez, A. (2013). Voice Over LTE. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Wiener, R. L., & Willborn, S. L. (Eds.). (2011). Disability and Aging Discrimination: Perspectives in Law and Psychology. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Connelly, W. M. (2014). Neurosteroids and Extrasynaptic GABAA Receptors. In A. C. Errington, G. Di Giovanni, & V. Crunelli (Eds.), Extrasynaptic GABAA Receptors (pp. 75–84). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for LWT.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 27). NASA Successfully Tests 3D-Printed Rocket Parts. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2002). Technology Transfer: Several Factors Have Led to a Decline in Partnerships at DOE’s Laboratories (GAO-02-465). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Igualada, M. O. (2015). The beliefs of advanced placement teachers regarding equity and access to advanced placement courses: A mixed-methods study [Doctoral dissertation]. Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010, May 20). As Calculated As Tie-Dye Can Get. New York Times, E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Joiner, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Joiner, 2000; Selosse & Rousset, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Selosse & Rousset, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Reznick et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Shrestha et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleLWT
AbbreviationLebenson. Wiss. Technol.
ISSN (print)0023-6438
ScopeFood Science

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