How to format your references using the LWT citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for LWT. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gaskell, C. M. (2010). Close supermassive binary black holes. Nature, 463(7277), E1; discussion E2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Forster, P., & Renfrew, C. (2011). Evolution. Mother tongue and Y chromosomes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6048), 1390–1391.
A journal article with 3 authors
Prospero, J. M., Bullard, J. E., & Hodgkins, R. (2012). High-latitude dust over the North Atlantic: inputs from Icelandic proglacial dust storms. Science (New York, N.Y.), 335(6072), 1078–1082.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Xu, W., Kim, T.-H., Zhai, D., Er, J. C., Zhang, L., Kale, A. A., Agrawalla, B. K., Cho, Y.-K., & Chang, Y.-T. (2013). Make caffeine visible: a fluorescent caffeine “traffic light” detector. Scientific Reports, 3, 2255.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
El-Haik, B. S. (2005). Axiomatic Quality. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ovens, A., & Fletcher, T. (Eds.). (2014). Self-Study in Physical Education Teacher Education: Exploring the interplay of practice and scholarship (Vol. 13). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Jin, X., Jiang, J., & Min, G. (2009). Multi-agent Based Personal File Management Using Case Based Reasoning. In E. Corchado, X. Wu, E. Oja, Á. Herrero, & B. Baruque (Eds.), Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Systems: 4th International Conference, HAIS 2009, Salamanca, Spain, June 10-12, 2009. Proceedings (pp. 26–33). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for LWT.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, June 20). Happy Sloth Week - Here’s Ten Facts About Sloths. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1979). Flaws in Controls Over the Supplemental Security Income Computerized System Cause Millions in Erroneous Payments (HRD-79-104). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Henning, J. N. (2014). Top ten effective community college board trustees self-perceived leadership attributes [Doctoral dissertation]. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2006, July 16). QUICK BITE/Elizabeth; Warming Up to Sausage and Dogs. New York Times, 14NJ13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gaskell, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Forster & Renfrew, 2011; Gaskell, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Forster & Renfrew, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Prospero et al., 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Xu et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleLWT
AbbreviationLebenson. Wiss. Technol.
ISSN (print)0023-6438
ScopeFood Science

Other styles