How to format your references using the LWT citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for LWT. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McNutt, M. (2013). Climate change impacts. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6145), 435.
A journal article with 2 authors
Komatsu, T., & Itino, T. (2014). Moth caterpillar solicits for homopteran honeydew. Scientific Reports, 4, 3922.
A journal article with 3 authors
Khan, P., Jain, H., & Adarsh, K. V. (2014). Role of Ge:As ratio in controlling the light-induced response of a-Ge(x)As(35-x)Se65 thin films. Scientific Reports, 4, 4029.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Rubin, K. H., van der Zander, I., Smith, M. C., & Bergmanis, E. C. (2005). Minimum speed limit for ocean ridge magmatism from 210Pb-226Ra-230Th disequilibria. Nature, 437(7058), 534–538.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hens, H. (2012). Building Physics - Heat, Air and Moisture. Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG.
An edited book
Biere, A., & Bloem, R. (Eds.). (2014). Computer Aided Verification: 26th International Conference, CAV 2014, Held as Part of the Vienna Summer of Logic, VSL 2014, Vienna, Austria, July 18-22, 2014. Proceedings (Vol. 8559). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Sun, L., Mkwawa, I.-H., Jammeh, E., & Ifeachor, E. (2013). Media Transport for VoIP. In I.-H. Mkwawa, E. Jammeh, & E. Ifeachor (Eds.), Guide to Voice and Video over IP: For Fixed and Mobile Networks (pp. 73–100). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for LWT.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017, March 28). Elon Musk Is Starting A Company Called Neuralink To Control Your Brain. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). Space Station: Cost Control Problems (T-NSIAD-98-54). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mete, R. J. (2010). Can STEM initiatives be social justice oriented: An analysis of urban school reform via smaller learning communities [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Soble, J., & de la MERCED, M. J. (2017, June 16). Takata, Preparing for a Sale, Is Said to Near Bankruptcy. New York Times, B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McNutt, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Komatsu & Itino, 2014; McNutt, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Komatsu & Itino, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Khan et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Rubin et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleLWT
AbbreviationLebenson. Wiss. Technol.
ISSN (print)0023-6438
ScopeFood Science

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