How to format your references using the First Monday citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for First Monday. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hannah Hoag, 2003. “In search of form and function,” Nature, volume 425, number 6960, pp. 880–881.
A journal article with 2 authors
Graham Bell and Andrew Gonzalez, 2011. “Adaptation and evolutionary rescue in metapopulations experiencing environmental deterioration,” Science (New York, N.Y.), volume 332, number 6035, pp. 1327–1330.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yicong Meng, Shigeru Tanaka and Chi-Sang Poon, 2012. “Comment on ‘Universality in the evolution of orientation columns in the visual cortex,’” Science (New York, N.Y.), volume 336, number 6080, pp. 413; author reply 413.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Maksim V. Plikus, Julie Ann Mayer, Damon de la Cruz, Ruth E. Baker, Philip K. Maini, Robert Maxson and Cheng-Ming Chuong, 2008. “Cyclic dermal BMP signalling regulates stem cell activation during hair regeneration,” Nature, volume 451, number 7176, pp. 340–344.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Walter H. Johnson Jr. MD and James H. Moller MD, 2014. Pediatric Cardiology, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Christian F. Poets, 2011. Controversies around treatment of the open duct, A. Franz and P. Koehne (editors), Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Eleonora Bassi, David Leoni, Stefano Leucci, Juan Pane and Lorenzino Vaccari, 2014. “Opening Public Deliberations: Transparency, Privacy, Anonymisation,” In: P. Casanovas, U. Pagallo, M. Palmirani and G. Sartor (editors). AI Approaches to the Complexity of Legal Systems: AICOL 2013 International Workshops, AICOL-IV@IVR, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, July 21-27, 2013 and AICOL-V@SINTELNET-JURIX, Bologna, Italy, December 11, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 41–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for First Monday.

Blog post
Elise Andrew, 2015. “New Analysis Reveals No Firm Conclusion On Whether Neonicotinoid Pesticides Harm Honeybee Populations,” IFLScience, at, accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2002. Financial Management: Amtrak’s Route Profitability Schedules Need Improvement, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kai-Uwe Werbeck, 2012. From rubble to revolutions and raves: Literary interrogations of German media ecologies, Doctoral dissertation, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Michael Wines, 2017. “Anger Follows an Accusation of Voter Fraud,” New York Times, p. A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hoag, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Hoag, 2003; Bell and Gonzalez, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bell and Gonzalez, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Plikus et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleFirst Monday
ISSN (print)1396-0466
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Human-Computer Interaction

Other styles