How to format your references using the First Monday citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for First Monday. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. L. Anderson, 2001. “Geophysics. Top-down tectonics?,” Science (New York, N.Y.), volume 293, number 5537, pp. 2016–2018.
A journal article with 2 authors
Robert J. Schafer and Tirin Moore, 2011. “Selective attention from voluntary control of neurons in prefrontal cortex,” Science (New York, N.Y.), volume 332, number 6037, pp. 1568–1571.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lance A. Liotta, Mauro Ferrari and Emanuel Petricoin, 2003. “Clinical proteomics: written in blood,” Nature, volume 425, number 6961, p. 905.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Eun-Mi Ha, Chun-Taek Oh, Yun Soo Bae and Won-Jae Lee, 2005. “A direct role for dual oxidase in Drosophila gut immunity,” Science (New York, N.Y.), volume 310, number 5749, pp. 847–850.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tara Rodden Robinson, 2010. Genetics for Dummies®, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Vincent Guyot edAA, 2013. Advanced Infocomm Technology: 5th IEEE International Conference, ICAIT 2012, Paris, France, July 25-27, 2012. Revised Papers, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
John Dahlsen, 2016. “Environmental Art,” In: E. Emerald, R.E. Rinehart and A. Garcia (editors). Global South Ethnographies: Minding the Senses, Rotterdam: SensePublishers, pp. 71–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for First Monday.

Blog post
Josh Davis, 2015. “North American Dogs Evolved In Response To Climate Change,” IFLScience, at, accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2000. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Progress of the Global Hawk Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Javier Garcia-Manglano, 2013. Working for pay or raising a family? Three papers on women’s work expectations and market outcomes, Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Linda Saslow, 2006. “For Roosevelt Schools, New Year and New Woes,” New York Times, p. LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Anderson, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Anderson, 2001; Schafer and Moore, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schafer and Moore, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Ha et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFirst Monday
ISSN (print)1396-0466
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Human-Computer Interaction

Other styles