How to format your references using the First Monday citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for First Monday. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ewen Callaway, 2015. “Computers read the fossil record,” Nature, volume 523, number 7558, pp. 115–116.
A journal article with 2 authors
K. A. Engelhardt and M. E. Ritchie, 2001. “Effects of macrophyte species richness on wetland ecosystem functioning and services,” Nature, volume 411, number 6838, pp. 687–689.
A journal article with 3 authors
Simon J. Elsässer, C. David Allis and Peter W. Lewis, 2011. “Cancer. New epigenetic drivers of cancers,” Science (New York, N.Y.), volume 331, number 6021, pp. 1145–1146.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Katharina Schlacher, Michael M. Cox, Roger Woodgate and Myron F. Goodman, 2006. “RecA acts in trans to allow replication of damaged DNA by DNA polymerase V,” Nature, volume 442, number 7105, pp. 883–887.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Will W. Minuth, Raimund Strehl and Karl Schumacher, 2005. Tissue Engineering, Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Vladimir P. Kharchenko, 2010. Ultrasound Diagnostics of Thyroid Diseases, P.M. Kotlyarov, M.S. Mogutov, Y.K. Alexandrov, A.N. Sencha, Y.N. Patrunov and D.V. Belyaev (editors), Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
France Meslé, Jacques Vallin and Vladimir Shkolnikov, 2012. “Is Mortality Under-Estimated?,” In: J. Vallin (editor). Mortality and Causes of Death in 20th-Century Ukraine, Demographic Research Monographs, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, pp. 77–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for First Monday.

Blog post
Robin Andrews, 2015. “The Enigmatic ‘Wheel of Giants’ Monument As Old As Stonehenge,” IFLScience, at, accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1991. Federal Research: Status of DOE’s Superconducting Super Collider, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Arlene Torres-Partida, 2014. Bridging the gap between faith based leaders and mental health professionals, Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mary Williams Walsh, 2016. “Supreme Court Hears Plea for Help From Puerto Rico,” New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Callaway, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Callaway, 2015; Engelhardt and Ritchie, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Engelhardt and Ritchie, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Schlacher et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleFirst Monday
ISSN (print)1396-0466
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Human-Computer Interaction

Other styles