How to format your references using the First Monday citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for First Monday. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nikolay A. Pertsev, 2013. “Origin of easy magnetization switching in magnetic tunnel junctions with voltage-controlled interfacial anisotropy,” Scientific reports, volume 3, p. 2757.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nima Mesgarani and Edward F. Chang, 2012. “Selective cortical representation of attended speaker in multi-talker speech perception,” Nature, volume 485, number 7397, pp. 233–236.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jie Ma, Lu Bai and Michelle D. Wang, 2013. “Transcription under torsion,” Science (New York, N.Y.), volume 340, number 6140, pp. 1580–1583.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P. Blancou, J. P. Vartanian, C. Christopherson, N. Chenciner, C. Basilico, S. Kwok and S. Wain-Hobson, 2001. “Polio vaccine samples not linked to AIDS,” Nature, volume 410, number 6832, pp. 1045–1046.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Christelle Camman, Claude Fiore, Laurent Livolsi and Pascal Querro, 2017. Supply Chain Management and Business Performance, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bruno G. Pollet, 2016. The Energy Landscape in the Republic of South Africa, 1st ed. 2016., I. Staffell and K.-A. Adamson (editors), Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Noemí Santana, Julián de Almeida, Guadalupe Mengod and Francesc Artigas, 2008. “Localization of 5-HT receptors in the mammalian cortex,” In: J.M. Monti, S.R. Pandi-Perumal, B.L. Jacobs and D.J. Nutt (editors). Serotonin and Sleep: Molecular, Functional and Clinical Aspects, Basel: Birkhäuser, pp. 135–153.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for First Monday.

Blog post
Robin Andrews, 2016. “A New Volcano May Be Emerging Beneath A Small New Zealand Town,” IFLScience, at, accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2010. District of Columbia Public Education: Agencies Have Enhanced Internal Controls Over Federal Payments for School Improvement, But More Consistent Monitoring Needed, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thomas Laubacher Laubacher, 2016. Simplifying “Inherently Governmental” Functions: Choosing between a Principled Approach or More of the Same, Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Michael Kelly, 1993. “The New White House Refrain: Please Hang Up and Dial Again,” New York Times, p. A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pertsev, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Pertsev, 2013; Mesgarani and Chang, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mesgarani and Chang, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Blancou et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleFirst Monday
ISSN (print)1396-0466
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Human-Computer Interaction

Other styles