How to format your references using the First Monday citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for First Monday. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Richard Foote, 2007. “Mathematics and complex systems,” Science (New York, N.Y.), volume 318, number 5849, pp. 410–412.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cagla Eroglu and Ben A. Barres, 2010. “Regulation of synaptic connectivity by glia,” Nature, volume 468, number 7321, pp. 223–231.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhongxiang Wang, Deepto Chakrabarty and David L. Kaplan, 2006. “A debris disk around an isolated young neutron star,” Nature, volume 440, number 7085, pp. 772–775.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Andrey Revyakin, Chenyu Liu, Richard H. Ebright and Terence R. Strick, 2006. “Abortive initiation and productive initiation by RNA polymerase involve DNA scrunching,” Science (New York, N.Y.), volume 314, number 5802, pp. 1139–1143.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sandra N. Koch, Sheila M. F. Torres and Donald C. Plumb, 2012. Canine and Feline Dermatology Drug Handbook, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,.
An edited book
Cheikh Thiécoumbe Gueye and Mercedes Siles Molina edsAA, 2016. Non-Associative and Non-Commutative Algebra and Operator Theory: NANCAOT, Dakar, Senegal, May 23–25, 2014: Workshop in Honor of Professor Amin Kaidi, Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Jerzy Surma, 2010. “Case Based Reasoning for Supporting Strategy Decision Making in Small and Medium Enterprises,” In: S. Montani and L.C. Jain (editors). Successful Case-based Reasoning Applications - I, Studies in Computational Intelligence, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 83–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for First Monday.

Blog post
Elise Andrew, 2015. “Extremely Rare Siamese Lizard Twins Found In German Zoo,” IFLScience, at, accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1991. Aerospace Plane Technology: Research and Development Efforts in Japan and Australia, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zaodi Sun, 2013. A qualitative study of Chinese parents’ beliefs, involvement and challenges in support of their children’s English language development in China, Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Neil MacFARQUHAR, 2017. “No Dancer Escapes His Gaze,” New York Times, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Foote, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Foote, 2007; Eroglu and Barres, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Eroglu and Barres, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Revyakin et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleFirst Monday
ISSN (print)1396-0466
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Human-Computer Interaction

Other styles