How to format your references using the First Monday citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for First Monday. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marla Geha, 2010. “Galaxy formation: Gone with the wind?,” Nature, volume 463, number 7278, pp. 167–168.
A journal article with 2 authors
Charles E. Murry and Richard T. Lee, 2009. “Development biology. Turnover after the fallout,” Science (New York, N.Y.), volume 324, number 5923, pp. 47–48.
A journal article with 3 authors
Koichi Komatsu, Michihisa Murata and Yasujiro Murata, 2005. “Encapsulation of molecular hydrogen in fullerene C60 by organic synthesis,” Science (New York, N.Y.), volume 307, number 5707, pp. 238–240.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yu Zhang, David Sturgill, Michael Parisi, Sudhir Kumar and Brian Oliver, 2007. “Constraint and turnover in sex-biased gene expression in the genus Drosophila,” Nature, volume 450, number 7167, pp. 233–237.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
David Silverstein, Philip Samuel and Neil Decarlo, 2008. The Innovator’s Toolkit, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Samer Mohammed, Juan C. Moreno, Kyoungchul Kong and Yacine Amirat edsAA, 2015. Intelligent Assistive Robots: Recent Advances in Assistive Robotics for Everyday Activities, Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Werner Schiehlen, Bin Hu and Robert Seifried, 2005. “Multiscale Methods for Multibody Systems with Impacts,” In: J.A.C. Ambrósio (editor). Advances in Computational Multibody Systems, Computational Methods in Applied Sciences, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, pp. 95–124.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for First Monday.

Blog post
Elise Andrew, 2015. “California Moves to Ban Religious and Personal Vaccine Exemptions,” IFLScience, at, accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2001. Business Systems Modernization: IRS Has Satisfied Congressional Direction on the Custodial Accounting Project, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Susan L. Rogers, 2017. Fear of Cancer and Theory of Planned Behavior as Predictors of Pap Screenings, Doctoral dissertation, Scottsdale, AZ: Northcentral University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Susan Chira, 2017. “Is This How a Woman Could Win?,” New York Times, p. SR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Geha, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Geha, 2010; Murry and Lee, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Murry and Lee, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleFirst Monday
ISSN (print)1396-0466
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Human-Computer Interaction

Other styles