How to format your references using the Astrophysics and Space Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Astrophysics and Space Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ruoff, R.: Perspective: A means to an end. Nature. 483, S42 (2012)
A journal article with 2 authors
Younesi, E., Hofmann-Apitius, M.: Biomarker-guided translation of brain imaging into disease pathway models. Sci. Rep. 3, 3375 (2013)
A journal article with 3 authors
Ruder, W.C., Lu, T., Collins, J.J.: Synthetic biology moving into the clinic. Science. 333, 1248–1252 (2011)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tsukahara, S., Kobayashi, A., Kawabe, A., Mathieu, O., Miura, A., Kakutani, T.: Bursts of retrotransposition reproduced in Arabidopsis. Nature. 461, 423–426 (2009)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Polushkin, V.: Nuclear Electronics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2005)
An edited book
Foresti, S., Lopez, J. eds: Information Security Theory and Practice: 10th IFIP WG 11.2 International Conference, WISTP 2016, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, September 26–27, 2016, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Yoo, I.S., Reitelshöfer, S., Landgraf, M., Franke, J.: Artificial Muscles, Made of Dielectric Elastomer Actuators - A Promising Solution for Inherently Compliant Future Robots. In: Verl, A., Albu-Schäffer, A., Brock, O., and Raatz, A. (eds.) Soft Robotics: Transferring Theory to Application. pp. 33–41. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Astrophysics and Space Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Human Trial Demonstrates Antibody Therapy Could Be Effective Against HIV,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Amtrak: Deteriorated Financial Condition and Costly Future Challenges. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1994)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Klippel, S.A.: The Celtic siren: A case study of William Sharp’s seduction experience in which the numinous other is understood and interpreted, (2005)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dominus, S.: In and Out of the Spotlight, a Mother-Daughter Act for the Ages, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ruoff 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Ruoff 2012; Younesi and Hofmann-Apitius 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Younesi and Hofmann-Apitius 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Tsukahara et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleAstrophysics and Space Science
AbbreviationAstrophys. Space Sci.
ISSN (print)0004-640X
ISSN (online)1572-946X
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science
Astronomy and Astrophysics

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