How to format your references using the Astrophysics and Space Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Astrophysics and Space Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schenk, P.M.: Thickness constraints on the icy shells of the galilean satellites from a comparison of crater shapes. Nature. 417, 419–421 (2002)
A journal article with 2 authors
Sanchez, V., Spector, D.H.: Virology. CMV makes a timely exit. Science. 297, 778–779 (2002)
A journal article with 3 authors
Gill, D.L., Spassova, M.A., Soboloff, J.: Signal transduction. Calcium entry signals--trickles and torrents. Science. 313, 183–184 (2006)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Knapp, A.K., Fay, P.A., Blair, J.M., Collins, S.L., Smith, M.D., Carlisle, J.D., Harper, C.W., Danner, B.T., Lett, M.S., McCarron, J.K.: Rainfall variability, carbon cycling, and plant species diversity in a mesic grassland. Science. 298, 2202–2205 (2002)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scott, D.M.: World Wide Rave. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2009)
An edited book
Mucherino, A., Lavor, C., Liberti, L., Maculan, N. eds: Distance Geometry: Theory, Methods, and Applications. Springer, New York, NY (2013)
A chapter in an edited book
Freguglia, P.: Geometric Calculus and Geometry Foundations in Peano. In: Skof, F. (ed.) Giuseppe Peano between Mathematics and Logic: Proceeding of the International Conference in honour of Giuseppe Peano on the 150th anniversary of his birth and the centennial of the Formulario Mathematico, Turin (Italy), October 2–3,2008. pp. 69–82. Springer, Milano (2011)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Astrophysics and Space Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Graphene Could Lead To Better Bullet-Proof Vests And Hydrogen Fuel Cells,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Strategic Sourcing: Improved and Expanded Use Could Provide Procurement Savings for Federal Information Technology. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2013)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yahil, R.J.: The role of interleukin-19 in interleukin-10 production by regulatory macrophages, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schenk 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Sanchez and Spector 2002; Schenk 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sanchez and Spector 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Knapp et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleAstrophysics and Space Science
AbbreviationAstrophys. Space Sci.
ISSN (print)0004-640X
ISSN (online)1572-946X
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science
Astronomy and Astrophysics

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