How to format your references using the Astrophysics and Space Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Astrophysics and Space Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shastri, N.: Cell biology. Peptides, scrambled and stitched. Science. 313, 1398–1399 (2006)
A journal article with 2 authors
Hutvágner, G., Zamore, P.D.: A microRNA in a multiple-turnover RNAi enzyme complex. Science. 297, 2056–2060 (2002)
A journal article with 3 authors
Antón, S.C., Potts, R., Aiello, L.C.: Human evolution. Evolution of early Homo: an integrated biological perspective. Science. 345, 1236828 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Homes, C.C., Vogt, T., Shapiro, S.M., Wakimoto, S., Ramirez, A.P.: Optical response of high-dielectric-constant perovskite-related oxide. Science. 293, 673–676 (2001)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Villalta, T.: The Large-Cap Portfolio. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2012)
An edited book
Lewis, G.A., Poernomo, I., Hofmeister, C. eds: Component-Based Software Engineering: 12th International Symposium, CBSE 2009 East Stroudsburg, PA, USA, June 24-26, 2009 Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2009)
A chapter in an edited book
Chondrogianni, N., Gonos, E.S.: Proteasome Function Determines Cellular Homeostasis and the Rate of Aging. In: Tavernarakis, N. (ed.) Protein Metabolism and Homeostasis in Aging. pp. 38–46. Springer US, Boston, MA (2010)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Astrophysics and Space Science.

Blog post


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Airport Financing: Comparing Funding Sources With Planned Development. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1998)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shipe, R.L.: Creating productive ambiguity: A visual research narrative, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lyall, S.: No Nobel Ceremony for Dylan. He’s Busy, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Shastri 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Hutvágner and Zamore 2002; Shastri 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hutvágner and Zamore 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Homes et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleAstrophysics and Space Science
AbbreviationAstrophys. Space Sci.
ISSN (print)0004-640X
ISSN (online)1572-946X
ScopeSpace and Planetary Science
Astronomy and Astrophysics

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