How to format your references using the Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macfadden BJ. Evolution. Fossil horses--evidence for evolution. Science. 2005 Mar;307(5716):1728–30.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bruno RM, Sakmann B. Cortex is driven by weak but synchronously active thalamocortical synapses. Science. 2006 Jun;312(5780):1622–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Feinstein NW, Allen S, Jenkins E. Outside the pipeline: reimagining science education for nonscientists. Science. 2013 Apr;340(6130):314–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Krusin-Elbaum L, Newns DM, Zeng H, Derycke V, Sun JZ, Sandstrom R. Room-temperature ferromagnetic nanotubes controlled by electron or hole doping. Nature. 2004 Oct;431(7009):672–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Waupsh J. Bankruption. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Krause D, Videira A, editors. Brazilian Studies in Philosophy and History of Science: An account of recent works. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Feng Q, Zhao W, Yu X, Shi Y. Exploration of Integrated Course Project Mode of the Internet of Things Engineering Based on the Relevance Theory. In: Che W, Han Q, Wang H, Jing W, Peng S, Lin J, et al., editors. Social Computing: Second International Conference of Young Computer Scientists, Engineers and Educators, ICYCSEE 2016, Harbin, China, August 20-22, 2016, Proceedings, Part II. Singapore: Springer; 2016; pp 26–31.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy.

Blog post
Andrew D. Man Straps Drones Together To Create A DIY Hovercraft [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Sep [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Acquisition Workforce: DOT Lacks Data, Oversight, and Strategic Focus Needed to Address Significant Workforce Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Holmberg MB. Alternative nitrogen for subsequent southern switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) production using cool-season legumes. 2014

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. Inquiry Into Gosman’s, Up for Sale, Continues. New York Times. 2007 Jan;14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFetal Diagnosis and Therapy
AbbreviationFetal Diagn. Ther.
ISSN (print)1015-3837
ISSN (online)1421-9964
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles