How to format your references using the Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Harris DN. Education. Value-added measures and the future of educational accountability. Science. 2011 Aug;333(6044):826–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Giljohann DA, Mirkin CA. Drivers of biodiagnostic development. Nature. 2009 Nov;462(7272):461–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Shih WM, Quispe JD, Joyce GF. A 1.7-kilobase single-stranded DNA that folds into a nanoscale octahedron. Nature. 2004 Feb;427(6975):618–21.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1
Lohmann KJ, Lohmann CMF, Ehrhart LM, Bagley DA, Swing T. Animal behaviour: geomagnetic map used in sea-turtle navigation. Nature. 2004 Apr;428(6986):909–10.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Pischella M, Le Ruyet D. Digital Communications 2. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
1
Majumder M. Feasibility Model of Solar Energy Plants by ANN and MCDM Techniques. Singapore: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Massone C, Nunzi E. Pathogenesis. In: Nunzi E, Massone C, editors. Leprosy: A Practical Guide. Milano: Springer; 2012; pp 39–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy.

Blog post
1
Luntz S. Vast Galactic Collisions Create Dark Matter Laboratory [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Jan [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/space/vast-galactic-collisions-create-dark-matter-laboratory/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Experimental Schools Program: Opportunities To Improve the Management of an Educational Research Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Gambini F. Leadership capacity for succession and sustainability in a family-owned private school. 2011

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Williams J. Disappearing Act: The Art and Fraud of Faking Your Own Death. New York Times. 2016 Aug;C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFetal Diagnosis and Therapy
AbbreviationFetal Diagn. Ther.
ISSN (print)1015-3837
ISSN (online)1421-9964
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Embryology
Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles