How to format your references using the Fertility and Sterility citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fertility and Sterility. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vedral V. Quantifying entanglement in macroscopic systems. Nature 2008;453(7198):1004–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Imura T, Tomonaga M. Differences between chimpanzees and humans in visual temporal integration. Sci Rep 2013;3:3256.
A journal article with 3 authors
Santos NC, Benz W, Mayor M. Extrasolar planets: constraints for planet formation models. Science 2005;310(5746):251–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hill PWS, Leitch HG, Requena CE, Sun Z, Amouroux R, Roman-Trufero M, et al. Epigenetic reprogramming enables the transition from primordial germ cell to gonocyte. Nature 2018;555(7696):392–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hartley J. Digital Futures for Cultural and Media Studies. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Geyer S, Turner R, editors. Microstructural Parcellation of the Human Cerebral Cortex: From Brodmann’s Post-Mortem Map to in Vivo Mapping with High-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Gor’kov LP. Theory of Superconducting Alloys. In: Bennemann KH, Ketterson JB, editors. Superconductivity: Conventional and Unconventional Superconductors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 201–24.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fertility and Sterility.

Blog post
Andrew E. Drone Captures Amazing Footage Of A Tornado [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Mass Transit: Challenges in Evaluating, Overseeing, and Funding Major Transit Projects. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Warren SM. The leadership process: An analysis of follower influence on leader behavior in hospital organizations. 2015;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Erlanger S, Kanter J. Brexit Talks Stall as E.U. Presses Britain to Pay Up. New York Times. 2017;A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleFertility and Sterility
AbbreviationFertil. Steril.
ISSN (print)0015-0282
ISSN (online)1556-5653
ScopeObstetrics and Gynaecology
Reproductive Medicine

Other styles