How to format your references using the Electoral Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electoral Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Staunton, H., 2008. Arousal by stimulation of deep-brain nuclei. Nature 452, E1; discussion E1-2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhu, H., Owen, M.R., 2013. Damped propagation of cell polarization explains distinct PCP phenotypes of epithelial patterning. Sci. Rep. 3, 2528.
A journal article with 3 authors
Krauss, L.M., Dodelson, S., Meyer, S., 2010. Primordial gravitational waves and cosmology. Science 328, 989–992.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rebouissou, S., Amessou, M., Couchy, G., Poussin, K., Imbeaud, S., Pilati, C., Izard, T., Balabaud, C., Bioulac-Sage, P., Zucman-Rossi, J., 2009. Frequent in-frame somatic deletions activate gp130 in inflammatory hepatocellular tumours. Nature 457, 200–204.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kricheldorf, H.R., 2012. Menschen und ihre Materialien. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Ben-Canaan, D., Grüner, F., Prodöhl, I. (Eds.), 2014. Entangled Histories: The Transcultural Past of Northeast China, Transcultural Research – Heidelberg Studies on Asia and Europe in a Global Context. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Rhee, H., Park, S., Sarapuloff, S.A., Han, S.W., Park, J.H., 2015. Frequency Tuning of a Wineglass Resonator Based on Acoustic Testing, in: Wee Sit, E. (Ed.), Sensors and Instrumentation, Volume 5: Proceedings of the 33rd IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics, 2015, Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 31–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electoral Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Genetically Modified Immune Cells Control HIV Long-Term [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. Information Technology: FBI Has Largely Staffed Key Modernization Program, but Strategic Approach to Managing Program’s Human Capital Is Needed (No. GAO-07-19). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grandon, J., 2015. The Distribution of Apiaceae in Lafayette and St. Martin Parishes (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2016. Puerto Rico’s Financial Woes Revive Calls for Independence. New York Times A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Staunton, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Staunton, 2008; Zhu and Owen, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhu and Owen, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Rebouissou et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleElectoral Studies
AbbreviationElect. Stud.
ISSN (print)0261-3794
ScopePolitical Science and International Relations

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