How to format your references using the Electoral Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electoral Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bohannon, J., 2015. Artificial intelligence. The synthetic therapist. Science 349, 250–251.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fox, R.C., Scott, C.S., 2005. First evidence of a venom delivery apparatus in extinct mammals. Nature 435, 1091–1093.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sánchez, I., Mahlke, C., Yuan, J., 2003. Pivotal role of oligomerization in expanded polyglutamine neurodegenerative disorders. Nature 421, 373–379.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
DeLellis, P., Polverino, G., Ustuner, G., Abaid, N., Macrì, S., Bollt, E.M., Porfiri, M., 2014. Collective behaviour across animal species. Sci. Rep. 4, 3723.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lipiansky, E., 2012. Electrical, Electronics, and Digital Hardware Essentials for Scientists and Engineers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
González Nieto, J., Reif, W., Wang, G., Indulska, J. (Eds.), 2009. Autonomic and Trusted Computing: 6th International Conference, ATC 2009 Brisbane, Australia, July 7-9, 2009 Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Yang, C., Ma, H., Fu, M., 2016. Object Detection and Tracking, in: Ma, H., Fu, M. (Eds.), Advanced Technologies in Modern Robotic Applications, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Singapore, pp. 97–156.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electoral Studies.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2015. Electrical Shocks To Your Brain Could Boost Your Memory [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1984. Corporation for Public Broadcasting’s Oversight of Public Television (No. AFMD-85-31). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Walker, M., 2009. Industry - higher education partnerships: A case study analysis of learning together (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2007. Skeptically, Court Hears Fraud Case. New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bohannon, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Bohannon, 2015; Fox and Scott, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fox and Scott, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (DeLellis et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleElectoral Studies
AbbreviationElect. Stud.
ISSN (print)0261-3794
ScopePolitical Science and International Relations

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