How to format your references using the Electoral Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electoral Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Omichinski, J.G., 2007. Biochemistry. Toward methylmercury bioremediation. Science 317, 205–206.
A journal article with 2 authors
Camacho, J., Arenas, A., 2005. Food-web topology: universal scaling in food-web structure? Nature 435, E3-4; discussion E4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vergassola, M., Villermaux, E., Shraiman, B.I., 2007. “Infotaxis” as a strategy for searching without gradients. Nature 445, 406–409.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, X., Chen, H., Yin, H., Kim, S.S., Lin Tan, S., Gosden, R.G., 2002. Fertility after intact ovary transplantation. Nature 415, 385.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Davis, R.A., 2015. Demand-Driven Inventory Optimization and Replenishment. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, New Jersey, USA.
An edited book
Chen, J., Hu, X., Stenzel-Poore, M., Zhang, J.H. (Eds.), 2014. Immunological Mechanisms and Therapies in Brain Injuries and Stroke, Springer Series in Translational Stroke Research. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Casado-Sanz, E., Barco-Laakso, R., Antuña, S., Rodríguez-Merchán, E.C., 2015. Shoulder Surgery in Hemophilia, in: Rodríguez-Merchán, E.C. (Ed.), Joint Surgery in the Adult Patient with Hemophilia. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 37–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electoral Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2015. Top 10 Insane Unexplained Scientific Discoveries [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1982. Education Authority To Charge Student Financial Aid Application Fees (No. B-206573). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Glock, M., 2008. Cultural futuristics: Bringing consciousness to cultural complexes and soul to scenario based planning (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K., 2008. Growing More Diverse. New York Times NJ11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Omichinski, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Camacho and Arenas, 2005; Omichinski, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Camacho and Arenas, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleElectoral Studies
AbbreviationElect. Stud.
ISSN (print)0261-3794
ScopePolitical Science and International Relations

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