How to format your references using the Electoral Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electoral Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Garner, E.C., 2008. GE Prize essay. Understanding a minimal DNA-segregating machine. Science 322, 1486–1487.
A journal article with 2 authors
von Zastrow, M., Mostov, K., 2001. Signal transduction. A new thread in an intricate web. Science 294, 1845–1847.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, F., Saslow, W.M., Pokrovsky, V.L., 2013. Phase diagram for magnon condensate in Yttrium Iron Garnet film. Sci. Rep. 3, 1372.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Buchanan, G.M., Beresford, A.E., Hebblewhite, M., Escobedo, F.J., De Klerk, H.M., Donald, P.F., Escribano, P., Koh, L.P., Martínez-López, J., Pettorelli, N., Skidmore, A.K., Szantoi, Z., Tabor, K., Wegmann, M., Wich, S., 2018. Free satellite data key to conservation. Science 361, 139–140.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Simon, L., 2013. Control of Biological and Drug-Delivery Systems for Chemical, Biomedical, and Pharmaceutical Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Faucher, C., Jain, L.C. (Eds.), 2014. Innovations in Intelligent Machines-4: Recent Advances in Knowledge Engineering, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Seeling, P., Fitzek, F.H.P., Reisslein, M., 2007. Metrics and Statistics for Video Traces, in: Fitzek, F.H.P., Reisslein, M. (Eds.), Video Traces for Network Performance Evaluation: A Comprehensive Overview and Guide on Video Traces and Their Utilization in Networking Research. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 45–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electoral Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Shrinking Of Antarctic Ice Shelves Is Accelerating [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2000. Essential Air Service: Changes in Subsidy Levels, Air Carrier Costs, and Passenger Traffic (No. RCED-00-34). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bible, P.W., 2013. Integrating Heterogeneous Datasets for Functional Profiling of Transcription Factors and Their Target Genes (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L., 2007. Dwindling Funds Jeopardize Immigrant Center. New York Times LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Garner, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Garner, 2008; von Zastrow and Mostov, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (von Zastrow and Mostov, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Buchanan et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleElectoral Studies
AbbreviationElect. Stud.
ISSN (print)0261-3794
ScopePolitical Science and International Relations

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