How to format your references using the Perspectives in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives in Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.T. Lee, Regulation of X-chromosome counting by Tsix and Xite sequences, Science. 309 (2005) 768–771.
A journal article with 2 authors
F.L.W. Takken, W.I.L. Tameling, To nibble at plant resistance proteins, Science. 324 (2009) 744–746.
A journal article with 3 authors
B.A. Scott, M.S. Avidan, C.M. Crowder, Regulation of hypoxic death in C. elegans by the insulin/IGF receptor homolog DAF-2, Science. 296 (2002) 2388–2391.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R.L. Reinhardt, A. Khoruts, R. Merica, T. Zell, M.K. Jenkins, Visualizing the generation of memory CD4 T cells in the whole body, Nature. 410 (2001) 101–105.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Soustelle, Phase Transformations, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
R.M. Samelson, Lagrangian Transport in Geophysical Jets and Waves: The Dynamical Systems Approach, Springer, New York, NY, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
H. Hashizume, S. van der Gaast, B.K.G. Theng, Interactions of Clay Minerals with RNA Components, in: P. Pontarotti (Ed.), Evolutionary Biology: Exobiology and Evolutionary Mechanisms, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 61–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives in Medicine.

Blog post
R. Andrews, Our Gut Microbes Influence How We Respond To Fear, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, U.S. Agencies Could Benefit by Better Management of ADP Activities of Government Contractors, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L. Laffitte, A Comparison of Pull-Out and Co-Teaching Models on the Reading Performance of Third through Fifth Grade Elementary Students with a Diagnosed Specific Learning Disability in Reading, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. O’connor, All at Sea, New York Times. (2017) BR15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives in Medicine
AbbreviationPerspect. Med.
ISSN (print)2211-968X
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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