How to format your references using the Perspectives in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives in Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
V. Lučić, Neuroscience: towards unified vesicle endocytosis, Nature. 515 (2014) 207–208.
A journal article with 2 authors
D.L. Gin, R.D. Noble, Chemistry. Designing the next generation of chemical separation membranes, Science. 332 (2011) 674–676.
A journal article with 3 authors
B. Dunn, H. Kamath, J.-M. Tarascon, Electrical energy storage for the grid: a battery of choices, Science. 334 (2011) 928–935.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
N. Mannella, W.L. Yang, X.J. Zhou, H. Zheng, J.F. Mitchell, J. Zaanen, T.P. Devereaux, N. Nagaosa, Z. Hussain, Z.-X. Shen, Nodal quasiparticle in pseudogapped colossal magnetoresistive manganites, Nature. 438 (2005) 474–478.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
K. Hunt-Ahmed, Contemporary Islamic Finance, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
R. Díez Muiño, H.F. Busnengo, eds., Dynamics of Gas-Surface Interactions: Atomic-level Understanding of Scattering Processes at Surfaces, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
G. Tryggvason, J. Lu, S. Biswas, A. Esmaeeli, Studies of Bubbly Channel Flows by Direct Numerical Simulations, in: M. Deville, T.-H. Lê, P. Sagaut (Eds.), Turbulence and Interactions: Keynote Lectures of the TI 2006 Conference, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009: pp. 93–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives in Medicine.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Ford Develops Smart Headlights To Make Driving At Night Safer, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Status of the Research Fleet of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L. Rose, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing: An Exploration From Science to Soul, Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S.K.C. by L. Van Gelder, Arts, Briefly; Can a Saint Wear Tights?, New York Times. (2005) E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives in Medicine
AbbreviationPerspect. Med.
ISSN (print)2211-968X
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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