How to format your references using the Perspectives in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives in Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
N. Savage, Metastasis: Resistance fighters, Nature. 528 (2015) S128-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
G. Chen, D.V. Goeddel, TNF-R1 signaling: a beautiful pathway, Science. 296 (2002) 1634–1635.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
I. Lestas, G. Vinnicombe, J. Paulsson, Fundamental limits on the suppression of molecular fluctuations, Nature. 467 (2010) 174–178.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
[1]
M.R.W. Rands, W.M. Adams, L. Bennun, S.H.M. Butchart, A. Clements, D. Coomes, A. Entwistle, I. Hodge, V. Kapos, J.P.W. Scharlemann, W.J. Sutherland, B. Vira, Biodiversity conservation: challenges beyond 2010, Science. 329 (2010) 1298–1303.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
R.N. Henriksen, Practical Relativity, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2010.
An edited book
[1]
K. Tanaka, Y. Suga, eds., Advances in Information and Computer Security: 10th International Workshop on Security, IWSEC 2015, Nara, Japan, August 26-28, 2015, Proceedings, 1st ed. 2015, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
S. Bruckner, F. Hüffner, C. Komusiewicz, R. Niedermeier, S. Thiel, J. Uhlmann, Partitioning into Colorful Components by Minimum Edge Deletions, in: J. Kärkkäinen, J. Stoye (Eds.), Combinatorial Pattern Matching: 23rd Annual Symposium, CPM 2012, Helsinki, Finland, July 3-5, 2012. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 56–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives in Medicine.

Blog post
[1]
A. Carpineti, Researchers Are Developing A Blood-Powered Laser To Hunt Tumors, IFLScience. (2016). https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/researchers-are-developing-a-blood-powered-laser-to-hunt-tumors/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office, Higher Education: Approaches to Attract and Fund International Students in the United States and Abroad, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
M. Zavala, Latinos’ attitudes towards receiving mental health services, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
L. Saslow, For $37.5 Million, the Piano Man’s Estate, New York Times. (2006) 14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives in Medicine
AbbreviationPerspect. Med.
ISSN (print)2211-968X
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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