How to format your references using the Perspectives in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives in Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. Nusse, Cell signalling: Disarming Wnt, Nature. 519 (2015) 163–164.
A journal article with 2 authors
Z. Zhou, F. Zhang, A precocial avian embryo from the Lower Cretaceous of China, Science. 306 (2004) 653.
A journal article with 3 authors
P.F.M.J. Verschure, T. Voegtlin, R.J. Douglas, Environmentally mediated synergy between perception and behaviour in mobile robots, Nature. 425 (2003) 620–624.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
V.C. Sundar, J. Zaumseil, V. Podzorov, E. Menard, R.L. Willett, T. Someya, M.E. Gershenson, J.A. Rogers, Elastomeric transistor stamps: reversible probing of charge transport in organic crystals, Science. 303 (2004) 1644–1646.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B. Robyns, B. François, G. Delille, C. Saudemont, Energy Storage in Electric Power Grids, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
B. Atweh, M. Graven, W. Secada, P. Valero, eds., Mapping Equity and Quality in Mathematics Education, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
B. Andrés, R. Poler, J.E. Hernández, An Operational Planning Solution for SMEs in Collaborative and Non-Hierarchical Networks, in: J.E. Hernández, S. Liu, B. Delibašić, P. Zaraté, F. Dargam, R. Ribeiro (Eds.), Decision Support Systems II - Recent Developments Applied to DSS Network Environments: Euro Working Group Workshop, EWG-DSS 2012, Liverpool, UK, April 12-13, 2012, and Vilnius, Lithuania, July 8-11, 2012, Revised Selected and Extended Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 46–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives in Medicine.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Little Hedgehog Who Lost His Spikes Being Kept Cozy Until They Grow Back, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Research: Evaluation of Small Business Innovation Research Can Be Strengthened, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.L. Wyers, An Investigation of Teacher Understanding and Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the Use of Learning Targets in the Classroom, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J.F. Peters, J. Nikas, E. Lyons, Youth in San Diego: Skateboards, Beach Hangs and Chicano Culture, New York Times. (2017) ST4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives in Medicine
AbbreviationPerspect. Med.
ISSN (print)2211-968X
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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