How to format your references using the Perspectives in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives in Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Parham, Innate immunity: The unsung heroes, Nature. 423 (2003) 20.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. Rajsbaum, A. García-Sastre, Virology. Unanchored ubiquitin in virus uncoating, Science. 346 (2014) 427–428.
A journal article with 3 authors
C.R.W. Ellison, M.R. Chapman, I.R. Hall, Surface and deep ocean interactions during the cold climate event 8200 years ago, Science. 312 (2006) 1929–1932.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
X. Michalet, F.F. Pinaud, L.A. Bentolila, J.M. Tsay, S. Doose, J.J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A.M. Wu, S.S. Gambhir, S. Weiss, Quantum dots for live cells, in vivo imaging, and diagnostics, Science. 307 (2005) 538–544.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Köhler, Nanotechnologie, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG, 2005.
An edited book
A.S. Kibos, B.P. Knight, V. Essebag, S.B. Fishberger, M. Slevin, I.C. Țintoiu, eds., Cardiac Arrhythmias: From Basic Mechanism to State-of-the-Art Management, Springer, London, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Hettige, Neo-Liberal Reforms, the Ethnic Conflict and the Decline of Liberal Democracy in Sri Lanka, in: S.O. Wolf, J. Schöttli, D. Frommherz, K. Fürstenberg, M. Gallenkamp, L. König, M. Pauli (Eds.), Politics in South Asia: Culture, Rationality and Conceptual Flow, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 61–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives in Medicine.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, Juno Has Recorded What The Magnetosphere Of Jupiter Sounds Like, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Telecommunications: Preliminary Information on Media Ownership, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.M. Nye, Crème de Pêche, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S.K. (nyt), World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Officers Cleared Of Chechen Deaths, New York Times. (2005) A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives in Medicine
AbbreviationPerspect. Med.
ISSN (print)2211-968X
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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