How to format your references using the Perspectives in Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives in Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E.B. Barbier, Disaster Management. A global strategy for protecting vulnerable coastal populations, Science. 345 (2014) 1250–1251.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.P. Zehr, R.M. Kudela, Ocean science. Photosynthesis in the open ocean, Science. 326 (2009) 945–946.
A journal article with 3 authors
T. Brown, W. Sibbett, E.M. Wright, Laser physics. Getting to grips with light, Science. 293 (2001) 1265–1267.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P.F. Donald, F.J. Sanderson, I.J. Burfield, S.M. Bierman, R.D. Gregory, Z. Waliczky, International conservation policy delivers benefits for birds in Europe, Science. 317 (2007) 810–813.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
N. Chen, Aerothermodynamics of Turbomachinery, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2010.
An edited book
K. Odaka, ed., The Myanmar Economy: Its Past, Present and Prospects, 1st ed. 2016, Springer Japan, Tokyo, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
X. Deng, J. Liu, E. Ma, L. Jiang, R. Yu, Q. Jiang, C. Zhao, Impact Assessments on Water and Heat Fluxes of Terrestrial Ecosystem Due to Land Use Change, in: J. Zhan (Ed.), Impacts of Land-Use Change on Ecosystem Services, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015: pp. 149–209.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives in Medicine.

Blog post
E. Andrew, The West Is On Fire – And The US Taxpayer Is Subsidizing It, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, National Survey of Cable Television Rates and Services, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E.M. Estrada Marroquin, Using support groups to help kinship caregivers transition youth to safe and productive community living: A grant proposal, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
N. Rich, Just Roll, Baby, New York Times. (2013) MM24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives in Medicine
AbbreviationPerspect. Med.
ISSN (print)2211-968X
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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