How to format your references using the Extremophiles citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Extremophiles. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Venema L (2011) Silicon electronics and beyond. Nature 479:309
A journal article with 2 authors
Olivera BM, Teichert RW (2011) Neuroscience: chemical ecology of pain. Nature 479:306–307
A journal article with 3 authors
Boyce DG, Lewis MR, Worm B (2010) Global phytoplankton decline over the past century. Nature 466:591–596
A journal article with 5 or more authors
de Bono M, Tobin DM, Davis MW, et al (2002) Social feeding in Caenorhabditis elegans is induced by neurons that detect aversive stimuli. Nature 419:899–903

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anjum B, Perros H (2015) Bandwidth Allocation for Video Under Quality of Service Constraints. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Kaltschmitt M, Streicher W, Wiese A (eds) (2007) Renewable Energy: Technology, and Environment Economics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Ieva M, Ziliani C, Gázquez-Abad JC (2015) Memory for Private Label Versus National Brand in Feature Advertising. In: Martínez-López FJ, Gázquez-Abad JC, Sethuraman R (eds) Advances in National Brand and Private Label Marketing: Second International Conference, 2015. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 43–50

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Extremophiles.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Bolivian Golden Bat Found To Be New To Science. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) Deferred Maintenance: Reporting Requirements and Identified Issues. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Learn DT (2012) Differentiating instruction on the basis of cognitive tools: A case study of honors and mainstream middle school classes. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW (2015) Cracks Starting to Appear in Public Pensions’ Armor. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Venema 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Olivera and Teichert 2011; Venema 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Olivera and Teichert 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (de Bono et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleExtremophiles
ISSN (print)1431-0651
ISSN (online)1433-4909
ScopeMolecular Medicine
General Medicine

Other styles