How to format your references using the Extremophiles citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Extremophiles. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sundqvist B (2014) Mapping intermolecular bonding in C₆₀. Sci Rep 4:6171
A journal article with 2 authors
Becker H, Walker RJ (2003) Efficient mixing of the solar nebula from uniform Mo isotopic composition of meteorites. Nature 425:152–155
A journal article with 3 authors
Vannucchi P, Remitti F, Bettelli G (2008) Geological record of fluid flow and seismogenesis along an erosive subducting plate boundary. Nature 451:699–703
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Bi K, Guo Y, Zhou J, et al (2014) Negative and near zero refraction metamaterials based on permanent magnetic ferrites. Sci Rep 4:4139

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schmidt W (2000) Optische Spektroskopie. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Hromkovič J, Nagl M, Westfechtel B (eds) (2005) Graph-Theoretic Concepts in Computer Science: 30th International Workshop, WG 2004, Bad Honnef, Germany, June 21-23, 2004. Revised Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Li X, Barkho BZ, Zhao X (2008) Neural Stem Cells and Neurogenic Niche in the Adult Brain. In: Shi Y, Clegg DO (eds) Stem Cell Research and Therapeutics. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 83–103

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Extremophiles.

Blog post
Andrew D (2015) Bizarre Cloud Formations Spotted Above British Columbia. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) BIA and DOD Schools: Student Achievement and Other Characteristics Often Differ from Public Schools’. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sripinit T (2012) How Much Do We Understand About Asymmetric Effects of Monetary Policy? Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Casselman B (2017) Experts Foresee a U.S. Work Force Defined by Ever Widening Divides. New York Times B3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sundqvist 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Becker and Walker 2003; Sundqvist 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Becker and Walker 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Bi et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleExtremophiles
ISSN (print)1431-0651
ISSN (online)1433-4909
ScopeMolecular Medicine
General Medicine

Other styles