How to format your references using the Extremophiles citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Extremophiles. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski D (2015) The changing face of industry. Nature 528:S184-6
A journal article with 2 authors
Houghton M, Abrignani S (2005) Prospects for a vaccine against the hepatitis C virus. Nature 436:961–966
A journal article with 3 authors
Chow J, Kopp RJ, Portney PR (2003) Energy resources and global development. Science 302:1528–1531
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Nelson R, Sawaya MR, Balbirnie M, et al (2005) Structure of the cross-beta spine of amyloid-like fibrils. Nature 435:773–778

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Quéguiner B (2016) The Biogeochemical Cycle of Silicon in the Ocean. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Yu RK, Schengrund C-L (eds) (2014) Glycobiology of the Nervous System. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Marani E, Koch WFRM (2014) History. In: Koch WFRM (ed) The Pelvis: Structure, Gender and Society. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 47–110

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Extremophiles.

Blog post
Evans K (2017) Growing Up Without Siblings May Affect Your Brain’s Development. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/brain/growing-up-without-siblings-may-affect-your-brains-development/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977) Survey at the Regional Finance and Data Processing Center in Paris, France. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wheeler JA (2012) The Scaling of High Harmonics with Mid-Infrared Driving Fields and a Method for the Spatial Isolation of Individual Subfemtosecond Pulses. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear MD, Kelly K (2017) Still Civic-Minded, but He’ll Speak for $400,000. New York Times A13

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cyranoski 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Houghton and Abrignani 2005; Cyranoski 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Houghton and Abrignani 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Nelson et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleExtremophiles
AbbreviationExtremophiles
ISSN (print)1431-0651
ISSN (online)1433-4909
ScopeMolecular Medicine
Microbiology
General Medicine

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