How to format your references using the Extremophiles citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Extremophiles. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Segal HP (2001) Back to the future from 1888. Nature 409:563
A journal article with 2 authors
Imura T, Tomonaga M (2013) A ground-like surface facilitates visual search in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Sci Rep 3:2343
A journal article with 3 authors
Zorzi M, Priftis K, Umiltà C (2002) Brain damage: neglect disrupts the mental number line. Nature 417:138–139
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Tesmer VM, Kawano T, Shankaranarayanan A, et al (2005) Snapshot of activated G proteins at the membrane: the Galphaq-GRK2-Gbetagamma complex. Science 310:1686–1690

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hitchner JR (2017) Financial Valuation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Bandrova T, Konecny M, Zlatanova S (eds) (2014) Thematic Cartography for the Society. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Neumann K-H, Imani J, Kumar A (2009) Cell Suspension Cultures. In: Kumar A, Neumann K-H (eds) Plant Cell and Tissue Culture - A Tool in Biotechnology: Basics and Application. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 43–50

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Extremophiles.

Blog post
Davis J (2017) Coral Reefs Generate $36 Billion In Tourism, So We Should Take Better Care Of Them. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1985) Proprietary School Compliance With Requirements of the Pell Grant Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
He C (2005) Advanced Wavelet Application for Video Compression and Video Object Tracking. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY J (2017) New York State to Cover Tuition in Cuomo Plan. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Segal 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Segal 2001; Imura and Tomonaga 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Imura and Tomonaga 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Tesmer et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleExtremophiles
ISSN (print)1431-0651
ISSN (online)1433-4909
ScopeMolecular Medicine
General Medicine

Other styles