How to format your references using the Extremophiles citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Extremophiles. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stevenson DJ (2003) Planetary science: Mission to Earth’s core--a modest proposal. Nature 423:239–240
A journal article with 2 authors
Kim W-Y, Snider WD (2008) Neuroscience. Overcoming inhibitions. Science 322:869–872
A journal article with 3 authors
Saper CB, Scammell TE, Lu J (2005) Hypothalamic regulation of sleep and circadian rhythms. Nature 437:1257–1263
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Pashkin YA, Yamamoto T, Astafiev O, et al (2003) Quantum oscillations in two coupled charge qubits. Nature 421:823–826

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
German Geotechnical Society (2012) Recommendations for Design and Analysis of Earth Structures using Geosynthetic Reinforcements - EBGEO. Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin, Germany
An edited book
Lozovanu D (2015) Optimization of Stochastic Discrete Systems and Control on Complex Networks: Computational Networks. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Chamlagain D, Gautam D (2015) Seismic Hazard in the Himalayan Intermontane Basins: An Example from Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. In: Nibanupudi HK, Shaw R (eds) Mountain Hazards and Disaster Risk Reduction. Springer Japan, Tokyo, pp 73–103

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Extremophiles.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2016) A Philippines Island Has The World’s Greatest Concentration Of Unique Mammals – Here’s Why. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/a-philippines-island-has-the-worlds-greatest-concentration-of-unique-mammals-heres-why/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) Vocational Rehabilitation: Improved Federal Leadership Could Help States Focus Services on Those With Severe Handicaps. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodriguez Gamez LI (2012) New perspectives on the spatial analysis of urban employment distribution and commuting patterns: The cases of Hermosillo and Ciudad Obregon, Mexico. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M, Belson K (2012) Open Is Drawing Record Crowds, but Fans Are Feeling the Squeeze. New York Times B9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stevenson 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Stevenson 2003; Kim and Snider 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kim and Snider 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Pashkin et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleExtremophiles
AbbreviationExtremophiles
ISSN (print)1431-0651
ISSN (online)1433-4909
ScopeMolecular Medicine
Microbiology
General Medicine

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