How to format your references using the Extremophiles citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Extremophiles. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spoor F (2015) Palaeoanthropology: The middle Pliocene gets crowded. Nature 521:432–433
A journal article with 2 authors
Michalakis Y, Roze D (2004) Evolution. Epistasis in RNA viruses. Science 306:1492–1493
A journal article with 3 authors
Marcus G, Marblestone A, Dean T (2014) Neuroscience. The atoms of neural computation. Science 346:551–552
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Crompvoets FM, Bethlem HL, Jongma RT, Meijer G (2001) A prototype storage ring for neutral molecules. Nature 411:174–176

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Taylor R (2006) Handbook of Retinal Screening in Diabetes. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Aalberg T, Papatheodorou C, Dobreva M, et al (eds) (2013) Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries: International Conference on Theory and Practice of Digital Libraries, TPDL 2013, Valletta, Malta, September 22-26, 2013. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Li Z, Li X (2016) Quantification of Spike-LFP Synchronization. In: Li X (ed) Signal Processing in Neuroscience. Springer, Singapore, pp 57–75

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Extremophiles.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2015) This Is The Message We Have Sent To Aliens. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988) Job Training Partnership Act: Participants, Services, and Outcomes. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Piekielek JA (2009) Public wildlands at the U.S.-Mexico border: Where conservation, migration, and border enforcement collide. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Tomasky M (2017) Paul Ryan’s Discontent. New York Times A23

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Spoor 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Michalakis and Roze 2004; Spoor 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Michalakis and Roze 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Crompvoets et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleExtremophiles
ISSN (print)1431-0651
ISSN (online)1433-4909
ScopeMolecular Medicine
General Medicine

Other styles