How to format your references using the Extremes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Extremes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
DiVincenzo, D.P.: Physics. Double quantum dot as a quantum bit. Science. 309, 2173–2174 (2005)
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhang, S.C., Hu, J.: A four-dimensional generalization of the quantum Hall effect. Science. 294, 823–828 (2001)
A journal article with 3 authors
Nishida, K., Montagner, J.-P., Kawakatsu, H.: Global surface wave tomography using seismic hum. Science. 326, 112 (2009)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Liu, F.G., Miyamoto, M.M., Freire, N.P., Ong, P.Q., Tennant, M.R., Young, T.S., Gugel, K.F.: Molecular and morphological supertrees for eutherian (placental) mammals. Science. 291, 1786–1789 (2001)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jakubith, M.: Grundoperationen und chemische Reaktionstechnik. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG (1998)
An edited book
Dayou, J.: Ground-Based Aerosol Optical Depth Measurement Using Sunphotometers. Springer, Singapore (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Lipani, A., Piroi, F., Andersson, L., Hanbury, A.: An Information Retrieval Ontology for Information Retrieval Nanopublications. In: Kanoulas, E., Lupu, M., Clough, P., Sanderson, M., Hall, M., Hanbury, A., and Toms, E. (eds.) Information Access Evaluation. Multilinguality, Multimodality, and Interaction: 5th International Conference of the CLEF Initiative, CLEF 2014, Sheffield, UK, September 15-18, 2014. Proceedings. pp. 44–49. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Extremes.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: Man Claims He’s Going To Put On A Snake-Proof Suit And Let An Anaconda Swallow Him On Camera,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Information Resources: USDA Lacks Data on Major Computer Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1993)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zoino, J.J.: Field Methods, Sampling Strategies, Historical Documents, and Data Redundancy: A Study of Historic Tenant Farmsteads in Leflore County, Mississippi, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J.C., Jr., Rojas, R.: An Impostor’s Lives and Lies, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (DiVincenzo 2005).
This sentence cites two references (DiVincenzo 2005; Zhang and Hu 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhang and Hu 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleExtremes
AbbreviationExtremes (Boston)
ISSN (print)1386-1999
ISSN (online)1572-915X
ScopeEconomics, Econometrics and Finance (miscellaneous)
Engineering (miscellaneous)
Statistics and Probability

Other styles