How to format your references using the Extremes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Extremes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott, A.: Axeing of website article sparks row at Max Planck. Nature. 422, 460 (2003)
A journal article with 2 authors
Nelson, W.J., Nusse, R.: Convergence of Wnt, beta-catenin, and cadherin pathways. Science. 303, 1483–1487 (2004)
A journal article with 3 authors
Sakai, T., Larsen, M., Yamada, K.M.: Fibronectin requirement in branching morphogenesis. Nature. 423, 876–881 (2003)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kondo, T., Wakayama, T., Naiki, T., Matsumoto, K., Sugimoto, K.: Recruitment of Mec1 and Ddc1 checkpoint proteins to double-strand breaks through distinct mechanisms. Science. 294, 867–870 (2001)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lu, M.: Arithmetic and Logic in Computer Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2005)
An edited book
Brinkman, D.B., Holroyd, P.A., Gardner, J.D. eds: Morphology and Evolution of Turtles. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2013)
A chapter in an edited book
Hon, K.L.E., Leung, A.K.C.: Use of Moisturizers in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis. In: Lodén, M. and Maibach, H.I. (eds.) Treatment of Dry Skin Syndrome: The Art and Science of Moisturizers. pp. 59–73. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2012)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Extremes.

Blog post


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Telecommunications: Information on Low Power Television, FCC’s Spectrum Incentive Auction, and Unlicensed Spectrum Use. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2016)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oppenheimer, C.: Use of bibliotherapy as an adjunctive therapy with bereaved children: A grant proposal, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L.: On the Wrong Side of 5 to 4, Liberals Talk Tactics, (2007)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Abbott 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Abbott 2003; Nelson and Nusse 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nelson and Nusse 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Kondo et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleExtremes
AbbreviationExtremes (Boston)
ISSN (print)1386-1999
ISSN (online)1572-915X
ScopeEconomics, Econometrics and Finance (miscellaneous)
Engineering (miscellaneous)
Statistics and Probability

Other styles