How to format your references using the Extremes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Extremes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Youngman, R.E.: Amorphous Materials. Glimpsing glass structure under pressure. Science. 345, 998–999 (2014)
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhou, Z., Zhang, F.: A precocial avian embryo from the Lower Cretaceous of China. Science. 306, 653 (2004)
A journal article with 3 authors
Ellison, C.R.W., Chapman, M.R., Hall, I.R.: Surface and deep ocean interactions during the cold climate event 8200 years ago. Science. 312, 1929–1932 (2006)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ohwada, M., Kimoto, K., Mizoguchi, T., Ebina, Y., Sasaki, T.: Atomic structure of titania nanosheet with vacancies. Sci. Rep. 3, 2801 (2013)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Manasreh, O.: Introduction to Nanomaterials and Devices. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2011)
An edited book
Kothari, V. ed: Proceedings of the 1982 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Tani, S., Narazaki, H., Ueda, Y., Nakamura, Y., Hino, T., Ohyama, S., Tomari, S., Yokota, C., Ohboshi, N., Minematsu, K., Nakazawa, K.: A Web-Based Stroke Education Application for Older Elementary Schoolchildren Focusing on the FAST Message. In: Chen, Y.-W., Torro, C., Tanaka, S., Howlett, R.J., and C. Jain, L. (eds.) Innovation in Medicine and Healthcare 2015. pp. 37–48. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Extremes.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: This Plane Will Take You Anywhere In The World In 4 Hours


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Federal Aviation Administration: Financial Management Issues. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1999)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lewis, T.L.: Quantitative approach to technical performance measurement and technical risk analysis utilizing Bayesian methods and Monte Carlo simulation, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B.: Boone, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Youngman 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Youngman 2014; Zhou and Zhang 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhou and Zhang 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Ohwada et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleExtremes
AbbreviationExtremes (Boston)
ISSN (print)1386-1999
ISSN (online)1572-915X
ScopeEconomics, Econometrics and Finance (miscellaneous)
Engineering (miscellaneous)
Statistics and Probability

Other styles