How to format your references using the Extremes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Extremes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldstein, R.H.: Paleoenvironment. Clues from fluid inclusions. Science. 294, 1009–1011 (2001)
A journal article with 2 authors
Chien, K., Chien, L.: The new Silk Road. Nature. 428, 208–209 (2004)
A journal article with 3 authors
Donner, S.D., Kandlikar, M., Zerriffi, H.: Environment and development. Preparing to manage climate change financing. Science. 334, 908–909 (2011)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Allen, C.D.C., Okada, T., Tang, H.L., Cyster, J.G.: Imaging of germinal center selection events during affinity maturation. Science. 315, 528–531 (2007)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Krimpmann, A.: Principles of Group Accounting under IFRS. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2015)
An edited book
Gafney, L.: Peer-Led Team Learning: Evaluation, Dissemination, and Institutionalization of a College Level Initiative. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2008)
A chapter in an edited book
Ding, Z., Liu, J., Wang, J.: A Petri Net Based Automatic Executable Code Generation Method for Web Service Composition. In: Lu, W., Cai, G., Liu, W., and Xing, W. (eds.) Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Information Technology and Software Engineering: Software Engineering & Digital Media Technology. pp. 39–48. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2013)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Extremes.

Blog post
Hale, T.: What’s Going On In This Trippy Image Of Yosemite National Park?,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Contracts Awarded by the Social and Rehabilitation Service of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare on a Noncompetitive Basis. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1971)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rosie, S.A.: Examining stakeholder perceptions of educational success in the Malagasy public education system, (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M.J.O.: Weekend Entertainments From the Archives of The New York Times, (2015)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goldstein 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Chien and Chien 2004; Goldstein 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chien and Chien 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Allen et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleExtremes
AbbreviationExtremes (Boston)
ISSN (print)1386-1999
ISSN (online)1572-915X
ScopeEconomics, Econometrics and Finance (miscellaneous)
Engineering (miscellaneous)
Statistics and Probability

Other styles