How to format your references using the Extremes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Extremes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Riley, S.: Large-scale spatial-transmission models of infectious disease. Science. 316, 1298–1301 (2007)
A journal article with 2 authors
Chittka, L., Peng, F.: Neuroscience. Caffeine boosts bees’ memories. Science. 339, 1157–1159 (2013)
A journal article with 3 authors
Cohen, B.A., Hewins, R.H., Yu, Y.: Evaporation in the young solar nebula as the origin of “just-right” melting of chondrules. Nature. 406, 600–602 (2000)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhu, R., Wang, Q., Ding, W., Wang, C., Hou, L., Ma, D.: Penguins significantly increased phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution in maritime Antarctic soils. Sci. Rep. 4, 7055 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dacey, J.S., Mack, M.D., Fiore, L.B.: Your Anxious Child. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2016)
An edited book
Eidelman, Y.: Separable Type Representations of Matrices and Fast Algorithms: Volume 2 Eigenvalue Method. Springer, Basel (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Sušil, P., Sepehrdad, P., Vaudenay, S.: On Selection of Samples in Algebraic Attacks and a New Technique to Find Hidden Low Degree Equations. In: Susilo, W. and Mu, Y. (eds.) Information Security and Privacy: 19th Australasian Conference, ACISP 2014, Wollongong, NSW, Australia, July 7-9, 2014. Proceedings. pp. 50–65. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Extremes.

Blog post
Andrew, D.: The Unbelievable Life Of The Forgotten Genius Who Turned Americans’ Space Dreams Into Reality,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Airline Competition: Industry Competitive and Financial Problems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1992)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zacher, B.: The roles of electrode contacts in organic photovoltaics, (2013)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B.: Film Series, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Riley 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Chittka and Peng 2013; Riley 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chittka and Peng 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleExtremes
AbbreviationExtremes (Boston)
ISSN (print)1386-1999
ISSN (online)1572-915X
ScopeEconomics, Econometrics and Finance (miscellaneous)
Engineering (miscellaneous)
Statistics and Probability

Other styles