How to format your references using the Zoomorphology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoomorphology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Henderson GM (2005) Ocean science. Coral clues to rapid sea-level change. Science 308:361–362
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen WP, Brudzinski MR (2001) Evidence for a large-scale remnant of subducted lithosphere beneath Fiji. Science 292:2475–2479
A journal article with 3 authors
Ma H, Aihara K, Chen L (2014) Detecting causality from nonlinear dynamics with short-term time series. Sci Rep 4:7464
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Luzio A, Criante L, D’Innocenzo V, Caironi M (2013) Control of charge transport in a semiconducting copolymer by solvent-induced long-range order. Sci Rep 3:3425

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cornier J, Owen A, Kwade A, Van de Voorde M (2017) Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology: Innovation and Production. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Oduaran A, Bhola HS (eds) (2006) WIDENING ACCESS TO EDUCATION AS SOCIAL JUSTICE. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Mangao DD, Thoe NK (2014) Search for SEAMEO Young Scientists (SSYS) – RECSAM’s Initiative for Promoting Public Science Education: The Way Forward. In: Zhang B, Fulmer GW, Liu X, et al. (eds) International Conference on Science Education 2012 Proceedings: Science Education: Policies and Social Responsibilities. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 45–56

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoomorphology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Million-year-old Footprints in Britain May Alter “Out of Africa” Timeline. In: IFLScience.“out-africa”-timeline/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1975) Automatic Data Processing Activity in the Feed Materials Production Center, Fernald, Ohio. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Manzanares ME (2012) Effect of a preoperative multidisciplinary education program on weight management after bariatric surgery. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller B, Rosenberg E (2015) Worker Trying to Prevent Vehicle Break-Ins Is Fatally Shot; Police Seek 3 Men. New York Times A23

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Henderson 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Chen and Brudzinski 2001; Henderson 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chen and Brudzinski 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Luzio et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoomorphology
ISSN (print)0720-213X
ISSN (online)1432-234X
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Developmental Biology

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