How to format your references using the Zoomorphology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoomorphology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P (2002) Blurred vision. Nature 420:A19, A21, A23
A journal article with 2 authors
Coe FL, Asplin JR (2010) Medicine. Stopping the stones. Science 330:325–326
A journal article with 3 authors
Kleckner N, Zickler D, Witz G (2013) Molecular biology. Chromosome capture brings it all together. Science 342:940–941
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Demers-Carpentier V, Goubert G, Masini F, et al (2011) Direct observation of molecular preorganization for chirality transfer on a catalyst surface. Science 334:776–780

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pohanish RP, Greene SA (2005) Wiley Guide to Chemical Incompatibilities. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Chakraborty UK (ed) (2008) Advances in Differential Evolution. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Williams C (2016) Social Work Research and the City. In: Williams C (ed) Social Work and the City: Urban Themes in 21st-Century Social Work. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp 97–120

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoomorphology.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2016) The Peer-Reviewed EmDrive Paper Is Officially Out. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) [Comments on FAA Employee’s Claim for Real Estate Expenses]. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Frederique NP (2010) The effectiveness of school based intensive probation for reducing recidivism: An evaluation of Maryland’s Spotlight on Schools program. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S (2008) Georgian Church Envoys Meet With Russian Official. New York Times A11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2002; Coe and Asplin 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Coe and Asplin 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Demers-Carpentier et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoomorphology
ISSN (print)0720-213X
ISSN (online)1432-234X
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Developmental Biology

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