How to format your references using the Zoomorphology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoomorphology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hendler J (2003) Communication. Science and the semantic web. Science 299:520–521
A journal article with 2 authors
Garczarek F, Gerwert K (2006) Functional waters in intraprotein proton transfer monitored by FTIR difference spectroscopy. Nature 439:109–112
A journal article with 3 authors
Asphaug E, Agnor CB, Williams Q (2006) Hit-and-run planetary collisions. Nature 439:155–160
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Waters AP, Mota MM, van Dijk MR, Janse CJ (2005) Parasitology. Malaria vaccines: back to the future? Science 307:528–530

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Belfiore LA (2010) Physical Properties of Macromolecules. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Fujita H, Selamat A (eds) (2015) Intelligent Software Methodologies, Tools and Techniques: 13th International Conference, SoMeT 2014, Langkawi, Malaysia, September 22-24, 2014. Revised Selected Papers. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Shakarian P, Subrahmanian VS (2011) Two Real-World Geospatial Abduction Applications. In: Subrahmanian VS (ed) Geospatial Abduction: Principles and Practice. Springer, New York, NY, pp 147–165

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoomorphology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Life In Extreme Environments. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) U.S. Trade and Development Agency: Limitations Exist in Its Ability to Help Generate U.S. Exports. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clavio G (2008) Uses and gratifications of Internet collegiate sport message board users. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J (2017) Rebelling Against a Charmed Life. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hendler 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Hendler 2003; Garczarek and Gerwert 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Garczarek and Gerwert 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Waters et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoomorphology
ISSN (print)0720-213X
ISSN (online)1432-234X
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Developmental Biology

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