How to format your references using the Zoomorphology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoomorphology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Greenberg EP (2003) Bacterial communication: tiny teamwork. Nature 424:134
A journal article with 2 authors
Accardi A, Miller C (2004) Secondary active transport mediated by a prokaryotic homologue of ClC Cl- channels. Nature 427:803–807
A journal article with 3 authors
Gu Y, Lee W, Shen J (2014) Site-2 protease responds to oxidative stress and regulates oxidative injury in mammalian cells. Sci Rep 4:6268
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Thompson RJ, Jackson MF, Olah ME, et al (2008) Activation of pannexin-1 hemichannels augments aberrant bursting in the hippocampus. Science 322:1555–1559

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mohan N (2014) Advanced Electric Drives. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Mathai AM (2010) The H-Function: Theory and Applications. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
O’Connor TF, Savagatrup S, Lipomi DJ (2016) Soft Power: Stretchable and Ultra-Flexible Energy Sources for Wearable and Implantable Devices. In: Rogers JA, Ghaffari R, Kim D-H (eds) Stretchable Bioelectronics for Medical Devices and Systems. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 69–82

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoomorphology.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2015) Pluto’s Surface Might Be Resting On An Ammonia-Water Slurry. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1973) Outlay Savings From Program Reductions and Terminations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nam Y-H (2008) On Throughput-Reliability-Delay Tradeoffs in Wireless Networks. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chauncey G (2010) Last Ban Standing. New York Times A35

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Greenberg 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Greenberg 2003; Accardi and Miller 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Accardi and Miller 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Thompson et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoomorphology
ISSN (print)0720-213X
ISSN (online)1432-234X
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Developmental Biology

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