How to format your references using the Zoomorphology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoomorphology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wineland D (2011) Norman Ramsey (1915-2011). Nature 480:182
A journal article with 2 authors
Fry CJ, Peterson CL (2002) Transcription. Unlocking the gates to gene expression. Science 295:1847–1848
A journal article with 3 authors
Häusser M, Major G, Stuart GJ (2001) Differential shunting of EPSPs by action potentials. Science 291:138–141
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ho M-C, Ménétret J-F, Tsuruta H, Allen KN (2009) The origin of the electrostatic perturbation in acetoacetate decarboxylase. Nature 459:393–397

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pederson LD (2015) Dialectical Behavior Therapy. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Vissers CA (2016) Architectural Design: Conception and Specification of Interactive Systems. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Bonet ML, Buss S (2012) An Improved Separation of Regular Resolution from Pool Resolution and Clause Learning. In: Cimatti A, Sebastiani R (eds) Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing – SAT 2012: 15th International Conference, Trento, Italy, June 17-20, 2012. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 44–57

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoomorphology.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2017) Messy Galaxy Is A Cosmic Mystery. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) Advanced Imaging Technology: TSA Needs Additional Information before Procuring Next-Generation Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Klyce LR (2008) Assessing parent-child agreement on an eating disorder symptom questionnaire. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Solomon BC (2017) In Grim Camps, Desperate Scene for Rohingya. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wineland 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Fry and Peterson 2002; Wineland 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fry and Peterson 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Ho et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoomorphology
ISSN (print)0720-213X
ISSN (online)1432-234X
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Developmental Biology

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