How to format your references using the Cath Lab Digest citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cath Lab Digest. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Laughlin G. Astronomy: A Mars-sized exoplanet. Nature. 2015 June; 522(7556): 290–291.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bjork A, Pitnick S. Intensity of sexual selection along the anisogamy-isogamy continuum. Nature. 2006 June; 441(7094): 742–745.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li Z-Z, Zhang F-C, Wang Q-H. Majorana modes in a topological insulator/s-wave superconductor heterostructure. Sci Rep. 2014 September; 4 6363.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kanan MW, Rozenman MM, Sakurai K, Snyder TM, Liu DR. Reaction discovery enabled by DNA-templated synthesis and in vitro selection. Nature. 2004 September; 431(7008): 545–549.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hopp V. Grundlagen der Life Sciences. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2000.
An edited book
Purshouse RC, Fleming PJ, Fonseca CM, Greco S, Shaw J (eds). Evolutionary Multi-Criterion Optimization: 7th International Conference, EMO 2013, Sheffield, UK, March 19-22, 2013. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Carlsson C, Fullér R. Fuzzy Real Options for Strategic Decisions. In: Fullér R, ed. Possibility for Decision: A Possibilistic Approach to Real Life Decisions. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p101–132.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cath Lab Digest.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Mars Lander Crashed Because It Thought It Was Underground. IFLScience. (2017, accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Offshoring in Six Human Services Programs: Offshoring Occurs in Most States, Primarily in Customer Service and Software Development. GAO-06-342Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; March 28, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Torres MF. The effect of mergers and acquisitions in the information technology organizational structures. Doctoral DissertationUniversity of Phoenix; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Some Merchants Tire of Going Hollywood. New York Times, July 7, 2002, 145.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCath Lab Digest
ISSN (print)1073-2667

Other styles