How to format your references using the Extreme Mechanics Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Extreme Mechanics Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E.C. Holmes, Virology. 1918 and all that, Science. 303 (2004) 1787–1788.
A journal article with 2 authors
Q. Yuan, Y.-P. Zhao, Wetting on flexible hydrophilic pillar-arrays, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1944.
A journal article with 3 authors
O. Ben-David, S.M. Rubinstein, J. Fineberg, Slip-stick and the evolution of frictional strength, Nature. 463 (2010) 76–79.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. Cortez, S. Guntuku, J. Qin, S.J. Elledge, ATR and ATRIP: partners in checkpoint signaling, Science. 294 (2001) 1713–1716.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H.-X. Li, X. Lu, System Design and Control Integration for Advanced Manufacturing, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
M. Bell, S.H. Hosseinloo, U. Kanturska, eds., Security and Environmental Sustainability of Multimodal Transport, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Seybold, U. Kessler, K.-P. Fritz, H. Kück, Precision Micro Assembly of Optical Components on MID and PCB, in: S. Ratchev (Ed.), Precision Assembly Technologies and Systems: 7th IFIP WG 5.5 International Precision Assembly Seminar, IPAS 2014, Chamonix, France, February 16-18, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014: pp. 30–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Extreme Mechanics Letters.

Blog post
R. Andrews, GM Tomatoes Contain 50 Red Wine Bottles’ Worth Of Resveratrol, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Spectrum Management: Preliminary Findings on Federal Relocation Costs and Auction Revenues, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.C. Robinson, A Geophysical and Geological Characterization of the Bonanza 3D Survey, Claiborne Group, Saint Landry and Evangeline Parishes, Louisiana, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Chan, BBC Publishes Pay of Top Stars, Revealing Gender and Racial Gaps, New York Times. (2017) A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleExtreme Mechanics Letters
AbbreviationExtreme Mech. Lett.
ISSN (print)2352-4316
ScopeChemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
Engineering (miscellaneous)
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials

Other styles