How to format your references using the Extreme Mechanics Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Extreme Mechanics Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H. Pearson, Biotech firms pin hopes on defence, Nature. 422 (2003) 790.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.E. Bianchi, A.A. Manfredi, Immunology. Dangers in and out, Science. 323 (2009) 1683–1684.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. Cwiok, P.-H. Heenen, W. Nazarewicz, Shape coexistence and triaxiality in the superheavy nuclei, Nature. 433 (2005) 705–709.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.M. Claes, D.-E. Nilsson, N. Straube, S.P. Collin, J. Mallefet, Iso-luminance counterillumination drove bioluminescent shark radiation, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4328.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E. Michael, H. Gillian, K. Stefan, L. Alex, Gramsci, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2012.
An edited book
M. Gargaud, Young Sun, Early Earth and the Origins of Life: Lessons for Astrobiology, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
R.N. Akram, K. Markantonakis, K. Mayes, An Introduction to the Trusted Platform Module and Mobile Trusted Module, in: K. Markantonakis, K. Mayes (Eds.), Secure Smart Embedded Devices, Platforms and Applications, Springer, New York, NY, 2014: pp. 71–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Extreme Mechanics Letters.

Blog post
E. Andrew, The Science Of How These Twin Sisters Look So Different, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Examination of Disbursing Transactions, Naval Supply Corps School, Athens, Georgia, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1971.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.A. Beasley, Investigations of redox-labeled silica and gold nanoparticles in solution and as films on electrodes, Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Koblin, Jane Pauley to Anchor CBS’s ‘Sunday Morning,’ New York Times. (2016) B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleExtreme Mechanics Letters
AbbreviationExtreme Mech. Lett.
ISSN (print)2352-4316
ScopeChemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
Engineering (miscellaneous)
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials

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