How to format your references using the Extreme Mechanics Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Extreme Mechanics Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S.S. Gangopadhyay, Systemic administration of follistatin288 increases muscle mass and reduces fat accumulation in mice, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2441.
A journal article with 2 authors
L.C. Hsieh-Wilson, M.E. Griffin, Chemistry. Improving biologic drugs via total chemical synthesis, Science. 342 (2013) 1332–1333.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Grosman, M. Zhou, A. Auerbach, Mapping the conformational wave of acetylcholine receptor channel gating, Nature. 403 (2000) 773–776.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R.Z. Ma, J. Gao, N.D. Meeker, P.D. Fillmore, K.S.K. Tung, T. Watanabe, J.F. Zachary, H. Offner, E.P. Blankenhorn, C. Teuscher, Identification of Bphs, an autoimmune disease locus, as histamine receptor H1, Science. 297 (2002) 620–623.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
F. Gustafsson, Adaptive Filtering and Change Detection, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2001.
An edited book
S. Bassis, A. Esposito, F.C. Morabito, eds., Advances in Neural Networks: Computational and Theoretical Issues, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
F. Kuusisto, V.S. Costa, H. Nassif, E. Burnside, D. Page, J. Shavlik, Support Vector Machines for Differential Prediction, in: T. Calders, F. Esposito, E. Hüllermeier, R. Meo (Eds.), Machine Learning and Knowledge Discovery in Databases: European Conference, ECML PKDD 2014, Nancy, France, September 15-19, 2014. Proceedings, Part II, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014: pp. 50–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Extreme Mechanics Letters.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Teenage Quasar Tries to Hide in its Galactic Room, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Higher Education: Information Sharing Could Help Institutions Identify and Address Challenges Some Asian Americans and Pacific Islander Students Face, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.D. Adler, Change in Automatic and Strategic Cognition: An Examination of Cognitive Therapy for Depression, Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Whiteside, Racing to Break Through Barriers, New York Times. (2016) SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleExtreme Mechanics Letters
AbbreviationExtreme Mech. Lett.
ISSN (print)2352-4316
ScopeChemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
Engineering (miscellaneous)
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials

Other styles