How to format your references using the Extreme Mechanics Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Extreme Mechanics Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S.M. Porter, Seawater chemistry and early carbonate biomineralization, Science. 316 (2007) 1302.
A journal article with 2 authors
C.G. Begley, L.M. Ellis, Drug development: Raise standards for preclinical cancer research, Nature. 483 (2012) 531–533.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Song, C. Ji, J.Z.H. Zhang, Unveiling the gating mechanism of ECF transporter RibU, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3566.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P. Prusinkiewicz, Y. Erasmus, B. Lane, L.D. Harder, E. Coen, Evolution and development of inflorescence architectures, Science. 316 (2007) 1452–1456.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Corsi, M. Dulieu, The Marketing of Technology Intensive Products and Services, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
B. Chaib-draa, J.P. Müller, eds., Multiagent based Supply Chain Management, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
J.N. Tsitsiklis, Y. Xu, Efficiency Loss in a Cournot Oligopoly with Convex Market Demand, in: V. Krishnamurthy, Q. Zhao, M. Huang, Y. Wen (Eds.), Game Theory for Networks: Third International ICST Conference, GameNets 2012, Vancouver, BC, Canada, May 24-26, 2012, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 63–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Extreme Mechanics Letters.

Blog post
T. Hale, Stunning Time-Lapse Video Of The Starry Night Sky, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Managed Care: State Approaches on Selected Patient Protections, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. Dair, Development of a nutrition-related curriculum for sustainable food waste management for foodservice operations, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
A. Barnard, U.S. Coalition Munition Use Is Scrutinized In Syria, New York Times. (2017) A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleExtreme Mechanics Letters
AbbreviationExtreme Mech. Lett.
ISSN (print)2352-4316
ScopeChemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
Engineering (miscellaneous)
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials

Other styles